Difference between revisions of "Vermont Emigration and Immigration"

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==How to Find the Records==
[[United States Emigration and Immigration]] lists several important sources for finding information about immigrants to this country. These sources include many references to people who settled in Vermont. [[Tracing Immigrant Origins]] introduces the principles, research strategies, and additional record types you can use to identify an immigrant’s original hometown.
+
'''The major port of entry to New England is Boston.''' See [[Massachusetts Online Genealogy Records|'''Massachusetts Online Genealogy Records'''.]]
 
 
 
=== Online Resources ===
 
=== Online Resources ===
*'''1500s-1900s''' [https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/7486/?arrival=_vermont-usa_48&count=50 All U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s - Vermont, USA] at [http://search.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]; index only ($)
+
*'''1500s-1900s''' [https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/7486/?arrival=_vermont-usa_48&count=50 All U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s] at Ancestry; index only ($); ''Also at [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10017/passenger-immigration-lists-1500-1900?s=1&formId=pili&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration&p=1&qimmigration=Event+et.immigration+ep.Vermont+epmo.similar MyHeritage]''; index only ($); includes those with Destination of Vermont
*'''1795-1925''' [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1174 U.S. Passport Applications for Vermont, 1795-1925] at [http://search.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]; index & images ($)  
+
*'''1894-1954''' {{RecordSearch|2185932|United States, Border Crossings from Canada to United States, 1894-1954}} at FamilySearch - [[United States, Border Crossings from Canada to United States, 1894-1954 - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
*'''1894-1954''' {{RecordSearch|2185932|United States, Border Crossings from Canada to United States, 1894-1954}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] - [[United States, Border Crossings from Canada to United States, 1894-1954 - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
+
*'''1895-1924''' [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/2185163 Vermont, St. Albans Canadian Border Crossings, 1895-1924] at FamilySearch - [[Vermont, St. Albans Canadian Border Crossings - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
*'''1895-1924''' [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/2185163 Vermont, St. Albans Canadian Border Crossings, 1895-1924] at [http://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] - [[Vermont, St. Albans Canadian Border Crossings - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
+
*'''1895-1924''' {{RecordSearch|3499160|Vermont, Passenger Lists, 1895-1924}} at FamilySearch - [[Vermont, Passenger Lists - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
*'''1895-1924''' {{RecordSearch|3499160|Vermont, Passenger Lists, 1895-1924}} at [https://familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] - [[Vermont, Passenger Lists - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
+
*'''1895-1956''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10942/united-states-border-crossings-from-canada-1895-1956?s=1&formId=collection_10942:searchFormDef&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=master,immigration&p=1&qevents-event1=Event+et.any+ep.Vermont+epmo.similar&qevents=List United States, Border Crossings from Canada, 1895-1956] at MyHeritage; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Vermont
*[https://www.findmypast.com/search/results?datasetname=united%20states%2c%20passenger%20and%20crew%20lists&datasettitle=new%20england%20passenger%20and%20crew%20lists&sid=999 United States, Passenger and Crew Lists - New England Passenger And Crew Lists] at [http://findmypast.com/ FindMyPast]; index & images ($)
+
*'''1911-1954''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/2072112 United States, New England Passenger and Crew Lists, 1911-1954] at FamilySearch - [[United States, New England Passenger and Crew Lists - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to Use this Collection]]; index & images
 
+
*[https://www.findmypast.com/search/results?datasetname=united%20states%2c%20passenger%20and%20crew%20lists&datasettitle=new%20england%20passenger%20and%20crew%20lists&sid=999 United States, Passenger and Crew Lists - New England Passenger And Crew Lists] at FindMyPast; index & images ($)
== People  ==
+
====Cultural Groups====
 
+
*[https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/49091/ British Aliens in the United States During the War of 1812], e-book
Colonial settlers of Vermont generally came from [[New Hampshire Genealogy|New Hampshire]], [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]], [[New York Genealogy|New York]], [[Connecticut, United States Genealogy|Connecticut]], and [[Rhode Island Genealogy|Rhode Island]]. During the early years of statehood until about 1808, settlers continued to come to Vermont from southern New England, but by the 1830s many Vermonters had left for developing cities in the south or for new farmlands to the west in the United States or to the north in Canada.<br><br>Before the middle of the 19th century, Irish immigrants from overseas came to build the railroads. Canadian immigrants, especially French Canadians from Quebec province, began to come to the state before the Civil War and continued to come in large numbers in the early 1900s. Smaller numbers of settlers came from Italy, Wales, Spain, and Poland to work in the mines, mills, and quarries of Vermont.
+
*'''1920-1939''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10924/germany-bremen-emigration-lists-1920-1939?s=1&formId=collection_10924:searchFormDef&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=master,immigration&p=1&qevents-event1=Event+et.any+ep.Vermont+epmo.similar&qevents=List Germany, Bremen Emigration Lists, 1920-1939] at MyHeritage; index only ($); includes those with Destination of Vermont
 
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*[https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10019/germans-immigrating-to-the-united-states?s=1&formId=immigration-norels&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration,pili&p=1&qimmigration=Event+et.immigration+ep.Vermont+epmo.similar Germans Immigrating to the United States] at MyHeritage; index only ($); includes those with Destination of Vermont
== Indexes  ==
+
*[https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10030/italians-immigrating-to-the-united-states?s=1&formId=immigration-norels&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration,pili,immigration-norels&p=1&qimmigration=Event+et.immigration+ep.Vermont+epmo.similar Italians Immigrating to the United States] at MyHeritage; index only ($); includes those with Destination of Vermont
 
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*[https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10029/russians-immigrating-to-the-united-states?s=1&formId=immigration-norels&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration,pili,immigration-norels&p=1&qimmigration=Event+et.immigration+ep.Vermont+epmo.similar Russians Immigrating to the United States] at MyHeritage; index only ($); includes those with Destination of Vermont
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/1921756 ''United States, Index to Passenger Arrivals, Atlantic and Gulf Ports, 1820-1874''] - included in FamilySearch’s Historical Records Collection. This indexes arrivals to 70 ports but ''not'' New York City. [[United States, Index to Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Atlantic and Gulf Coast Ports - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to use this collection.]]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/1803785 ''United States, Border Crossings from Canada to United States, 1895-1956''] – included in FamilySearch’s Historical Records Collection. [[Border Crossings From Canada to the United States - FamilySearch Historical Records|How to use this collection]]. Records of Canadian border entries from 1895 to 1954 are on {{FHL|452590|item|disp=FHL film 1472801 (first of 937 films)}} .
 
*P. William Filby, ''Passenger and Immigration Lists Index'', 15 Volumes. (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1981- ). {{FHL|291926|item|disp=FHL book 973 W32p}} Indexes of names of colonial immigrants listed in published sources. The first three volumes are a combined alphabetical index published in 1981. Supplemental volumes and cumulative indexes have been published. {{WorldCat|7385897|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}. Available on [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7486 Ancestry] ($).
 
 
 
== Records  ==
 
 
 
A comprehensive list of about 140,000 immigrants to America from Britain is:
 
 
 
*Coldham, Peter Wilson. ''The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607–1776 and Emigrants in Bondage, 1614–1775''. Family Tree Maker’s Family Archives, Number 350. Brøderbund Software, Novato, Calif., 1996. (Family History&nbsp;Library&nbsp;compact disc {{FHL|773852|title-id|disp=Number 9 pt.350}}.) This compact disc is not circulated to Family History Centers. It includes Vermont immigrants and may show British hometown, emigration date, ship, destination, and text of the document abstract. These are also indexed in the FamilyFinder™ Index and Viewer (FamilyFinder is a trademark of Brøderbund Software, Inc.) described in [[Vermont Census]].
 
 
 
The major port of entry to New England is Boston. The Family History Library and the National Archives have passenger lists for Boston for 1820 to March 1874 and 1883 to 1935. The following indexes are available:
 
  
*'''1820-1874.''' See [https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/1921756 ''United States, Index to Passenger Arrivals, Atlantic and Gulf Ports, 1820-1874''] mentioned above.
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==== Passport Records Online  ====
*'''1848-1891, 1902-1906, 1906-1920, and book indexes 1899-1940''' These years are listed in the FamilySearch Catalog under MASSACHUSETTS, SUFFOLK, BOSTON - EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION.
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*'''1795-1925''' - {{RecordSearch|2185145|United States Passport Applications, 1795-1925}} at [https://www.familysearch.org/search FamilySearch] — index and images
 +
*'''1795-1925''' - [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1174 U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925] Index and images, at Ancestry ($)
  
The Massachusetts State Archives also has Boston passenger lists for 1848 to 1874 and 1883 to 1891. This includes records for the nine years missing from the National Archives records. The 1848 to 1891 index (above) is an index to the state lists but can also be used for the National Archives records.  
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===Offices to Contact===
 +
Although many records are included in the online records listed above, there are other records available through these archives and offices. For example, there are many minor ports that have not yet been digitized. There are also records for more recent time periods. For privacy reasons, some records can only be accessed after providing proof that your ancestor is now deceased.
 +
====National Archives and Records Administration====
 +
*The [https://www.archives.gov/research/immigration/overview '''National Archives (NARA)'''] has immigration records for arrivals to the United States from foreign ports between approximately 1820 and 1982. The records are arranged by [https://www.archives.gov/research/immigration/passenger-arrival.html#https://www.archives.gov/research/immigration/passenger-arrival.html#where '''Port of Arrival (See Part 5).''']
 +
:*You may do research in immigration records in person at the National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001. 
 +
*Some [https://www.archives.gov/locations '''National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) regional facilities'''] have selected immigration records; call to verify their availability or check the online Microfilm Catalog.
 +
*Libraries with large genealogical collections, such as the [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog '''FamilySearch Library in Salt Lake City, Utah'''] and the [https://acpl-cms.wise.oclc.org/genealogy '''Allen County Piblic Library'''] also have selected NARA microfilm publications.
 +
:*Order copies of passenger arrival records with [https://www.archives.gov/files/forms/pdf/natf-81.pdf '''NATF Form 81'''.]
  
Portland, Maine was another significant port of arrival:  
+
====U.S. Citizenship and and Immigration Services Genealogy Program====
 +
The [https://www.uscis.gov/records/genealogy '''USCIS Genealogy Program'''] is a fee-for-service program that provides researchers with timely access to historical immigration and naturalization records of deceased immigrants. If the immigrant was born less than 100 years ago, you will also need to provide proof of his/her death.
 +
=====Immigration Records Available=====
 +
*[https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/genealogy/historical-record-series/a-files-numbered-below-8-million '''A-Files:'''] Immigrant Files, (A-Files) are the individual alien case files, which became the official file for all immigration records created or consolidated since April 1, 1944.
 +
*[https://www.uscis.gov/records/genealogy/historical-record-series/alien-registration-forms-on-microfilm-1940-1944 '''Alien Registration Forms (AR-2s):'''] Alien Registration Forms (Form AR-2) are copies of approximately 5.5 million Alien Registration Forms completed by all aliens age 14 and older, residing in or entering the United States between August 1, 1940 and March 31, 1944.
 +
*[https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/genealogy/historical-record-series/registry-files-march-2-1929-march-31-1944''' Registry Files:'''] Registry Files are records, which document the creation of immigrant arrival records for persons who entered the United States prior to July 1, 1924, and for whom no arrival record could later be found.
 +
*[https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/genealogy/historical-record-series/visa-files-july-1-1924-march-31-1944'''Visa Files:'''] Visa Files are original arrival records of immigrants admitted for permanent residence under provisions of the Immigration Act of 1924.<ref>"Genealogy", at USCIS, https://www.uscis.gov/records/genealogy, accessed 26 March 2021.</ref>
  
*United States. Immigration and Naturalization Service. ''Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Portland, Maine, 1893–1943; Index 1893–1954''. National Archives Microfilm Publications, A1151, and T0524. Washington, DC: National Archives, 1944, 1986. {{FHL|341267|item|disp=FHL film 1412619 (first of 34 films)}} Index cards are grouped by time period and then by name of the head of the household, but are not in strict alphabetical order.
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=====Requesting a Record=====
 +
*[https://genealogy.uscis.dhs.gov/ '''Web Request Page'''] allows you to request a records, pay fees, and upload supporting documents (proof of death).
 +
*[https://www.uscis.gov/records/genealogy/genealogical-records-help/record-requests-frequently-asked-questions '''Record Requests Frequently Asked Questions''']
  
Also consult passenger lists of other New England ports and for ports in Canada. <br>  
+
==Finding Town of Origin==
 +
Records in the countries emigrated from are kept on the local level. You must first identify the '''name of the town''' where your ancestors lived to access those records. If you do not yet know the name of the town of your ancestor's birth, there are well-known strategies for a thorough hunt for it.
 +
*[[U. S. Immigration Records: Finding the Town of Origin|'''U. S. Immigration Records: Finding the Town of Origin''']]
 +
==Background==
 +
*In 1666, '''French''' settlers erected Fort Sainte Anne on Isle La Motte, the first European settlement in Vermont.
 +
*In 1690, a group of '''Dutch-British''' settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point.
 +
*The first permanent '''English''' settlement was established in 1724 with the construction of Fort Dummer.
 +
*Colonial settlers of Vermont generally came from [[New Hampshire Genealogy|New Hampshire]], [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]], [[New York Genealogy|New York]], [[Connecticut, United States Genealogy|Connecticut]], and [[Rhode Island Genealogy|Rhode Island]].
 +
*During the early years of statehood until about 1808, settlers continued to come to Vermont from southern New England, but by the 1830s many Vermonters had left for developing cities in the south or for new farmlands to the west in the United States or to the north in Canada.
 +
*Before the middle of the 19th century, '''Irish''' immigrants from overseas came to build the railroads.
 +
*Canadian immigrants, especially '''French Canadians''' from Quebec province, began to come to the state before the Civil War and continued to come in large numbers in the early 1900s.
 +
*Beginning in the mid-19th century, Vermont industries attracted numerous '''Irish, Scots-Irish and Italian immigrants'''. Many of the immigrants migrated to Barre, where the men worked as stonecutters of granite, for which there was a national market. Many Italian and Scottish women operated boarding houses to support their families.<ref>"Vermont", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vermont, accessed 7 April 2021.</ref>
  
=== Canadian Border Crossing Records (1895–1954) ===
+
==Immigration Records==
 +
'''Immigration''' refers to people coming into a country. '''Emigration''' refers to people leaving a country to go to another. Immigration records usually take the form of ship's '''passenger lists''' collected at the port of entry. See [[Vermont Emigration and Immigration#Online Resources|'''Online Resources'''.]]
 +
===What can I find in them?===
 +
====[[Vermont Emigration and Immigration #Online Resources|Information in Passenger Lists]]====
 +
*'''Before 1820''' - Passenger lists before 1820 included '''name, departure information and arrival details'''.  The names of wives and children were often not included. 
  
Lists of passengers crossing the Canadian border to the United States, including Vermont, were collected at St. Albans, Vermont, and are called ''Manifest of Passengers Arriving in the St. Albans, Vermont District''. (See the links to the index above.) This collection includes records from all over Canada and the northern United States. These are the records compiled by U.S. immigration officials who inspected travelers at all Canadian seaports, major cities, and emigration stations and at U.S. train arrival stations in all border states from Maine to Washington. These lists may include the name of the passenger, date and port or station of entry, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, place of birth, and names of relatives in the United States and Canada. For a full description of the two sets of records and four indexes, see the [[United States Emigration and Immigration]]. One record pertains more to Vermont than the others:
+
*'''1820-1891''' - Customs Passenger Lists between 1820 and 1891 asked for '''each immigrant’s name, their age, their sex, their occupation, and their country of origin''', but not the city or town of origin.
  
*United States. Immigration and Naturalization Service. ''St. Albans District Manifest Records of Aliens Arriving from Foreign Contiguous Territory: Records of Arrivals through Small Ports in Vermont, 1895–1924''. National Archives Microfilm Publications, M1462. Washington, DC: National Archives Records Service, 195–?. {{FHL|452594|item|disp=FHL films 1430987–92}} These records are arranged first by entry station, then alphabetically by surname. They are from Vermont ports of entry only: '''Alburg, Beecher Falls, Canaan, Highgate Springs, Island Pond, Norton, Richford, St. Albans,''' and '''Swanton'''.
+
*'''1891-1954''' - Information given on passenger lists from 1891 to 1954 included:
 +
**name, age, sex,
 +
**nationality, occupation, marital status,
 +
**last residence, final destination in the U.S.,  
 +
**whether they had been to the U.S. before (and if so, when, where and how long),
 +
**if joining a relative, who this person was, where they lived, and their relationship,  
 +
**whether able to read and write,  
 +
**whether in possession of a train ticket to their final destination, who paid for the passage,
 +
**amount of money the immigrant had in their possession,  
 +
**whether the passenger had ever been in prison, a poorhouse, or in an institution for the insane,
 +
**whether the passenger was a polygamist,  
 +
**and immigrant's state of health.  
  
=== Where Vermont Residents Went ===
+
*'''1906--''' - In 1906, the '''physical description and place of birth''' were included, and a year later, the '''name and address of the passenger’s closest living relative in the country of origin''' was included.
  
For information about where Vermont residents tended to move, see:  
+
====[[Vermont Emigration and Immigration#Passport Records Online|Information in Passports]]  ====
 +
Over the years, passports and passport applications contained different amounts of information about the passport applicant. The first passports that are available begin in 1795. These usually contained the individual's name, description of individual, and age. More information was required on later passport applications, such as:  
  
*Davenport, David Paul. ''Yankee Settlement of New York 1783–1820''. Crossroads (Genealogical Society of Utah: Salt Lake City, Utah) Journal 17, Number 1 &amp; 2 (1988/1989): 63–88. (Family History Library book {{FHL|1223167|title-id|disp=973 D25gi}}.) This article gives a state-by-state analysis of New Yorker origins and includes several maps.
+
*Birthplace 
 +
*Birth date
 +
*Naturalization&nbsp;information
 +
*Arrival information, if foreign born
  
*Darlington, James W. ''Peopling the Post-Revolutionary New York Frontier.'' New York History 74, Number 4 (Oct. 1993): 340–81. (Family History Library book {{FHL|1112759|title-id|disp=974.7 H25n}}.) This statistical analysis with detailed maps also discusses where people moved after settling New York.
+
==In-country Migration==
 +
===Vermont Migration Routes===
  
*Stilwell, Lewis D. ''Migration from Vermont. ''Vol. 5. Montpelier, Vermont: Vermont Historical Society, 1948. {{FHL|209992|item|disp=FHL book 974.3 W2s; film 873949 item 1}} {WorldCat|5986084|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}} This book includes a name and locality index and charts showing migration patterns of Vermonters to other parts of the United States before 1860.
+
[[Chambly Canal]]{{·}} [[Champlain Canal]]{{·}} [[Connecticut River]]{{·}} [[Erie Canal]]{{·}} [[Hudson River]]{{·}} [[Lake Champlain]]
  
Also see [[United States Emigration and Immigration|United States Emigration and Immigration]].
+
==For Further Reading==
 +
The FamilySearch Library has additional sources listed in their catalog:
 +
*{{FHL|466565|subject_id|disp=United States, Vermont - Emigration and immigration}}
 +
*{{FHL|631294|subject_id|disp=United States, Vermont - Minorities}}
 +
==References==
 +
<references/>
  
 
{{Vermont2|Vermont}}  
 
{{Vermont2|Vermont}}  
  
 
[[Category:Vermont, United States]][[Category:United States Emigration and Immigration|1]]
 
[[Category:Vermont, United States]][[Category:United States Emigration and Immigration|1]]

Latest revision as of 20:06, 10 April 2021

Vermont Wiki Topics
Vermont flag.png
Beginning Research
Record Types
Vermont Background
Cultural Groups
Local Research Resources

How to Find the Records[edit | edit source]

The major port of entry to New England is Boston. See Massachusetts Online Genealogy Records.

Online Resources[edit | edit source]

Cultural Groups[edit | edit source]

Passport Records Online[edit | edit source]

Offices to Contact[edit | edit source]

Although many records are included in the online records listed above, there are other records available through these archives and offices. For example, there are many minor ports that have not yet been digitized. There are also records for more recent time periods. For privacy reasons, some records can only be accessed after providing proof that your ancestor is now deceased.

National Archives and Records Administration[edit | edit source]

  • You may do research in immigration records in person at the National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001.

U.S. Citizenship and and Immigration Services Genealogy Program[edit | edit source]

The USCIS Genealogy Program is a fee-for-service program that provides researchers with timely access to historical immigration and naturalization records of deceased immigrants. If the immigrant was born less than 100 years ago, you will also need to provide proof of his/her death.

Immigration Records Available[edit | edit source]
  • A-Files: Immigrant Files, (A-Files) are the individual alien case files, which became the official file for all immigration records created or consolidated since April 1, 1944.
  • Alien Registration Forms (AR-2s): Alien Registration Forms (Form AR-2) are copies of approximately 5.5 million Alien Registration Forms completed by all aliens age 14 and older, residing in or entering the United States between August 1, 1940 and March 31, 1944.
  • Registry Files: Registry Files are records, which document the creation of immigrant arrival records for persons who entered the United States prior to July 1, 1924, and for whom no arrival record could later be found.
  • Visa Files: Visa Files are original arrival records of immigrants admitted for permanent residence under provisions of the Immigration Act of 1924.[1]
Requesting a Record[edit | edit source]

Finding Town of Origin[edit | edit source]

Records in the countries emigrated from are kept on the local level. You must first identify the name of the town where your ancestors lived to access those records. If you do not yet know the name of the town of your ancestor's birth, there are well-known strategies for a thorough hunt for it.

Background[edit | edit source]

  • In 1666, French settlers erected Fort Sainte Anne on Isle La Motte, the first European settlement in Vermont.
  • In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point.
  • The first permanent English settlement was established in 1724 with the construction of Fort Dummer.
  • Colonial settlers of Vermont generally came from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • During the early years of statehood until about 1808, settlers continued to come to Vermont from southern New England, but by the 1830s many Vermonters had left for developing cities in the south or for new farmlands to the west in the United States or to the north in Canada.
  • Before the middle of the 19th century, Irish immigrants from overseas came to build the railroads.
  • Canadian immigrants, especially French Canadians from Quebec province, began to come to the state before the Civil War and continued to come in large numbers in the early 1900s.
  • Beginning in the mid-19th century, Vermont industries attracted numerous Irish, Scots-Irish and Italian immigrants. Many of the immigrants migrated to Barre, where the men worked as stonecutters of granite, for which there was a national market. Many Italian and Scottish women operated boarding houses to support their families.[2]

Immigration Records[edit | edit source]

Immigration refers to people coming into a country. Emigration refers to people leaving a country to go to another. Immigration records usually take the form of ship's passenger lists collected at the port of entry. See Online Resources.

What can I find in them?[edit | edit source]

Information in Passenger Lists[edit | edit source]

  • Before 1820 - Passenger lists before 1820 included name, departure information and arrival details. The names of wives and children were often not included.
  • 1820-1891 - Customs Passenger Lists between 1820 and 1891 asked for each immigrant’s name, their age, their sex, their occupation, and their country of origin, but not the city or town of origin.
  • 1891-1954 - Information given on passenger lists from 1891 to 1954 included:
    • name, age, sex,
    • nationality, occupation, marital status,
    • last residence, final destination in the U.S.,
    • whether they had been to the U.S. before (and if so, when, where and how long),
    • if joining a relative, who this person was, where they lived, and their relationship,
    • whether able to read and write,
    • whether in possession of a train ticket to their final destination, who paid for the passage,
    • amount of money the immigrant had in their possession,
    • whether the passenger had ever been in prison, a poorhouse, or in an institution for the insane,
    • whether the passenger was a polygamist,
    • and immigrant's state of health.
  • 1906-- - In 1906, the physical description and place of birth were included, and a year later, the name and address of the passenger’s closest living relative in the country of origin was included.

Information in Passports[edit | edit source]

Over the years, passports and passport applications contained different amounts of information about the passport applicant. The first passports that are available begin in 1795. These usually contained the individual's name, description of individual, and age. More information was required on later passport applications, such as:

  • Birthplace
  • Birth date
  • Naturalization information
  • Arrival information, if foreign born

In-country Migration[edit | edit source]

Vermont Migration Routes[edit | edit source]

Chambly Canal · Champlain Canal · Connecticut River · Erie Canal · Hudson River · Lake Champlain

For Further Reading[edit | edit source]

The FamilySearch Library has additional sources listed in their catalog:

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Genealogy", at USCIS, https://www.uscis.gov/records/genealogy, accessed 26 March 2021.
  2. "Vermont", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vermont, accessed 7 April 2021.