Time Line Schleswig-Holstein[edit | edit source]
In order to protect themselves from invading Saxons, the Danes in the north built the DANEWERK and the Saxons built a protection against the Wenden (Slavs), the LIMES SAXONIAE, running from Kiel south to the River Elbe, through Lüneburg. In Wagrien (now Ostholstein, Probstei) we still find traces of Wendish influence, i.e. the name of the village Wenddorp (Wendtorf), some Wendish family names, like Jessien, Puck and Steffen. Names ending in –iz, -ow or –in are usually names of Slavic origin.
1140 Wagrien, land of the Slavs is conquered by the Holsten and Storman. The Slavs lose their independence, become Christians and assimilate with their neighbors, who were recruited from Flanders, Holland, Westphalia and Friesland.
1200 Beginning of dyke building, first under the supervision of the church, then it became privatized. In the 1600s this lead to more reliable structures, i.e. people from the Netherlands brought techniques with them for considerable improvements.
1201 The land north of the river Elbe becomes Danish
1202 Stadtrecht (privilege of towns to have separate laws than the rest of the country) in Schleswig and other cities, like Mölln and Lübeck, Oldenburg, Plön, Itzehoe, Kiel, Eutin, Lauenburg. The Bürger (citizen) comes into being. Next to tax records citizenship records were kept.
1227 Battle of Bornhöved signified the end of Danish rule in Holstein
1273 Holstein was divided into 5 duchies: Kiel, Segeberg, Plön, Rendsburg and Pinneberg
1350 The first Black Death epidemic swept over Schleswig-Holstein, the last one occurred in the middle of the 1700s. It wiped out up to 50% of the population in some areas.
1350s The Hanse (an alliance of merchants) with the seat in Lübeck
flourishes in the Baltic region, to be reduced in influence by Dutch enterprising and Hamburg’s outreach to the West in the 1600s.
1362 The great tidal wave “De grote Manndränke” claimed more than 100.000 deaths, 34 churches and the city of Rungholt. After this tragedy, the race for land reclamation started in Northern Frisia.
1459 Death of Duke Adolf VII. He is the last Schauenburger.
1460 Election of Christian I, Duke of Schleswig and Earl of Holstein Privilege of Ripen, a promise that the territories of Schleswig und Holstein will not be divided any more.
1465 Husum receives the status of Flecken. A Flecken is a settlement be- tween the seize of a village and a town, also known as Blek. Flecken were rural villages centrally located. They had guild privileges for journeymen, exemption from military service and the right to hold market days.
1475 First printing press in Lübeck
1494 First printing of the Bible in Lübeck
1496 Vierstädtegericht (four city courts) In order to get away from
Lübeck law (Lübeck had the court of ultimate resort) the
Danish King Johann and Duke Friedrich I established a new court system.
1522 Beginning of Reformation in Husum.
1530 Beginning of witch hunt with first burn-up in Kiel, comes to an end in 1734
1542 Acceptance of the order of the Lutheran Church in Schleswig and Holstein. Founding of state church. Pinneberg and Lauenburg are stragglers. They accept Lutheran order in 1561 and 1585 respectively. Church books with sometimes marriage records first and then birth and deaths information are kept.
1581 Dithmarschen was divided into North- and South Dithmarschen
1584 The first known protection of Jewish citizens in Altona proclaimed Jewish citizens were few in Schleswig-Holstein. They were mainly accepted in towns and Altona had the greatest contingent. Portuguese Jews, the Sephards settle in Glückstadt in the early1600s.
1614 Serfdom accepted by Schleswig-Holstein’s governing forces. Serfdom came into being through wealthy landowners buying surrounding land belonging to farmers. With the purchase of their land the farmers had to give their services to the land owner and were bound by the “Schollenband” (no freedom to move). Services given to the wealthy land owners started at 6 years old. The land owner had total control over his serfs, gave permission to marry and was also responsible for his subjects’ conscription.
1627 The 30 Years War reaches the North. Jutland and Schleswig-Holstein were occupied by Wallenstein’s troops and by 1629 the land was devastated because the soldiers lived of the land.
1643 Swedish-Danish War. The war was instigated by Christian IV, who imposed tariffs. The Swedes saw this as a threat because Denmark interfered their trading with the Netherlands and Hamburg. Anew devastation of the land followed
1650 Around this time Holländer (Dutch citizens) start dairy farming in Schleswig-Holstein
1655 Danish-Swedish War until 1660 when in Denmark Absolutism (the legislative, judicial and executive authority was in the hands of one sovereign) was introduced which spread throughout Europe and ended with the French Revolution, which basically questioned the appointment by divine right.
1688 Abolishment of serfdom starts in Schmoel. By 1805
serfdom was altogether abandoned.
1711 Bannmeilenverordnung. To protect the urban trade from the rural one, the authorities put a one-mile ban around the city. Working ones trade was only possible within a certain perimeter.
1720 The Danish crown receives the Gottorf part of Schleswig 1721 The Danes get Rantzau
1761 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön becomes Danish Kolonisten (colonizers) arrive in Southern Jutland and Schleswig- Holstein
1769 First census taken in the Duchies controlled by the Danes
1770 No more use of patronymics in Schleswig by royal decree
1773 Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein become permanently
Danish, 1815 the Duchy of Lauenburg also becomes Danish.
1798 First address book for Lübeck 1800 Before this date seamen and adventurers would immigrate, but
at the beginning at the 19th century immigration from Schleswig- Holstein would really pick up among the population, peaking in 1880 with 12000 to 14000 people leaving, many via Hamburg starting 1850
The population starts to choose German as their language rather than Danish. The German language advances to Flensburg in the first decades
1803 Duchy of Lauenburg occupied by Napoleon
1805 Census taken
1810 Principality of Lübeck is occupied by Napoleon I until 1813, after
which it becomes part of Oldenburg again
1811 City of Lübeck becomes part of France, Lauenburg too
1812 Immunization mandatory
1814 School becomes mandatory
1815 Duchy of Lauenburg becomes Danish
1819 Steam ship line Caledonia Kiel-Copenhagen opens
1835 Census 1840 Census 1845 Census
1848 Revolt of the German Schleswig-Holsteiners against Denmark
1855 Census 1860 Census
1864 After several military turmoils Denmark abdicates the three Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.
1867 Schleswig-Holstein becomes a Prussian province
1874 Civil Registration begins
1875 Lauenburg becomes part of the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein
1890 Helgoland becomes part of Schleswig-Holstein 1920 Poll in the area north of Flensburg and south of Tondern to decide whether to remain Danish or become German. Approx. ¾ of the population opted to be Danish. The border between Denmark and Germany runs just north of Flensburg to this day.