Difference between revisions of "Santa Fe Trail"

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''[[United States Genealogy|United States]] > [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]] > [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads ]] > [[Santa_Fe_Trail|Santa Fe Trail]]''
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The Santa Fe Trail was an overland international trade route, military road, and pioneer migration trail in central North America between the [[United States Genealogy|United States]] and [[Mexico Genealogy|Mexico]] from 1821 to 1880. The Santa Fe Trail went from Missouri through Kansas, Colorado, or sometimes Oklahoma to New Mexico.  
 
The Santa Fe Trail was an overland international trade route, military road, and pioneer migration trail in central North America between the [[United States Genealogy|United States]] and [[Mexico Genealogy|Mexico]] from 1821 to 1880. The Santa Fe Trail went from Missouri through Kansas, Colorado, or sometimes Oklahoma to New Mexico.  
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[[Image:{{SanFeTmap}}]]<br><br>  
 
[[Image:{{SanFeTmap}}]]<br><br>  
  
=== Historical Background  ===
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== Historical Background  ==
  
Shortly after [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_independence Mexican independence from Spain] in 1821, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Becknell William Bicknell], a merchant-trader opened the Santa Fe Trail as a lucrative trade route from Franklin, [[Missouri Genealogy|Missouri]] to Santa Fe, [[New Mexico Genealogy|New Mexico]]. During most of its history the trail was used to carry pack-trains or wagon loads of trade goods between Missouri and New Mexico. In 1846 at the start of the [[Mexican War, 1846 to 1848|Mexican War]] the United States Army used the Santa Fe Trail to invade and later supply New Mexico. At the end of the war Mexico ceded territory that would become [[California Genealogy|California]], [[Nevada Genealogy|Nevada]], [[Utah Genealogy|Utah]], [[Colorado Genealogy|Colorado]], [[Arizona Genealogy|Arizona]], and [[New Mexico Genealogy|New Mexico]] to the United States. Some American [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Gold_Rush forty-niners] used the Santa Fe Trail on the way to the California gold fields. Before long, ox teams pulling wagons began to carry more and more [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_pioneer pioneers] from the expanding United States into New Mexico and the western states. Eventually, in 1880, the old wagon trail was replaced by the [[Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway|Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway]] which&nbsp;roughly followed the Santa Fe Trail Mountain Route from Kansas City into Colorado and New Mexico.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Santa Fe Trail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Fe_Trail (accessed 19 July 2009).</ref>  
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Shortly after [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_independence Mexican independence from Spain] in 1821, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Becknell William Bicknell], a merchant-trader opened the Santa Fe Trail as a lucrative trade route from Franklin, [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]] to Santa Fe, [[New Mexico, United States Genealogy|New Mexico]]. During most of its history, the trail was used to carry pack-trains or wagon loads of trade goods between Missouri and New Mexico. In 1846 at the start of the [[Mexican War, 1846 to 1848|Mexican War]] the United States Army used the Santa Fe Trail to invade and later supply New Mexico. At the end of the war Mexico ceded territory that would become [[California, United States Genealogy|California]], [[Nevada, United States Genealogy|Nevada]], [[Utah, United States Genealogy|Utah]], [[Colorado, United States Genealogy|Colorado]], [[Arizona, United States Genealogy|Arizona]], and [[New Mexico, United States Genealogy|New Mexico]] to the United States. Some American [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Gold_Rush forty-niners] used the Santa Fe Trail on the way to the California goldfields. Before long, ox teams pulling wagons began to carry more and more [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_pioneer pioneers] from the expanding United States into New Mexico and the western states. Eventually, in 1880, the old wagon trail was replaced by the [[Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway|Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway]] which roughly followed the Santa Fe Trail Mountain Route from Kansas City into Colorado and New Mexico.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Santa Fe Trail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Fe_Trail (accessed 19 July 2009).</ref>  
  
Part of the reason the Santa Fe Trail was a success was because it linked the [[United States Genealogy|United States]] to two other significant trade routes, the [[Camino Real de Tierra Adentro|Camino Real]], and the [[Old Spanish Trail|Old Spanish Trail]], all forming a hub in Santa Fe. Since 1598 the Camino Real had been used to carry settlers and goods from Mexico City and Chihuahua to Santa Fe.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Camino_Real_de_Tierra_Adentro (accessed 19 July 2009).</ref> When the Santa Fe Trail opened these Mexican goods could be traded for goods from the United States. In 1829-1830 the Old Spanish Trail also was opened connecting Los Angeles to Santa Fe making even more merchandise available for trade.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Old Spanish Trail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Spanish_Trail_(trade_route) (accessed 19 July 2009).</ref>  
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Part of the reason the Santa Fe Trail was a success was that it linked the [[United States Genealogy|United States]] to two other significant trade routes, the [[Camino Real de Tierra Adentro|Camino Real]], and the [[Old Spanish Trail|Old Spanish Trail]], all forming a hub in Santa Fe. Since 1598 the Camino Real had been used to carry settlers and goods from Mexico City and Chihuahua to Santa Fe.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Camino_Real_de_Tierra_Adentro (accessed 19 July 2009).</ref> When the Santa Fe Trail opened these Mexican goods could be traded for goods from the United States. In 1829-1830 the Old Spanish Trail also was opened connecting Los Angeles to Santa Fe making even more merchandise available for trade.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Old Spanish Trail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Spanish_Trail_(trade_route) (accessed 19 July 2009).</ref>  
  
 
Settlers followed trails because forests, mountains, rivers, lakes, or deserts blocked other routes. If an ancestor settled near a trail, you may be able to trace their place of origin back to another place along the trail.
 
Settlers followed trails because forests, mountains, rivers, lakes, or deserts blocked other routes. If an ancestor settled near a trail, you may be able to trace their place of origin back to another place along the trail.
  
* Vernon, Joseph S. {{FHL|1053152|disp=Along the old trail : a history of the old and a story of the new Santa Fe Trail}}, online through FamilySearch Catalog.
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* Vernon, Joseph S. {{FHL|1053152|disp=Along the old trail: a history of the old and a story of the new Santa Fe Trail}}, online through FamilySearch Catalog.
  
=== Route  ===
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== Route  ==
  
During much of its early history, the only permanant white settlement on the Santa Fe Trail was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent%27s_Old_Fort Bent's Old Fort] in Colorado. Many of the following places were built later in trail history, or after the coming of the nearby [[Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway|Santa Fe Railway]]. From east to west some of the more prominent places along or near the Santa Fe Trail included:  
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During much of its early history, the only permanent white settlement on the Santa Fe Trail was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent%27s_Old_Fort Bent's Old Fort] in Colorado. Many of the following places were built later in trail history, or after the coming of the nearby [[Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway|Santa Fe Railway]]. From east to west some of the more prominent places along or near the Santa Fe Trail included:  
  
 
*Franklin, Missouri  
 
*Franklin, Missouri  
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*Lakin, Kansas
 
*Lakin, Kansas
  
'''Cimarron Route''' (60 miles shorter but drier&nbsp;and less-dependable water and forage for livestock)  
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'''Cimarron Route''' (60 miles shorter but drier and less-dependable water and forage for livestock)  
  
 
*Boise, Oklahoma  
 
*Boise, Oklahoma  
 
*Clayton, New Mexico
 
*Clayton, New Mexico
  
'''Mountain Route''' (60 miles longer but wetter&nbsp;and more-dependable water and forage for livestock)  
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'''Mountain Route''' (60 miles longer but wetter and more-dependable water and forage for livestock)  
  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent%27s_Old_Fort Bent's Old Fort] near La Junta, Colorado  
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bent%27s_Old_Fort Bent's Old Fort] near La Junta, Colorado  
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*Santa Fe, New Mexico
 
*Santa Fe, New Mexico
  
=== Settlers  ===
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== Settlers  ==
  
American pioneer settlers who followed the Santa Fe Trail to [[Colorado Genealogy|Colorado]], or northern [[New Mexico Genealogy|New Mexico]] would appear in land records, censuses, and possibly county histories. Few appear in lists as the earliest settlers because the Spanish speaking pioneers from old [[Mexico Genealogy|Mexico]] via the [[Camino Real de Tierra Adentro|Camino Real de Tierra Adentro]] preceded them by many years.  
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American pioneer settlers who followed the Santa Fe Trail to [[Colorado, United States Genealogy|Colorado]], or northern [[New Mexico, United States Genealogy|New Mexico]] would appear in land records, censuses, and possibly county histories. Few appear in lists as the earliest settlers because the Spanish speaking pioneers from old [[Mexico Genealogy|Mexico]] via the [[Camino Real de Tierra Adentro|Camino Real de Tierra Adentro]] preceded them by many years.  
  
American settlers who travelled the Santa Fe Trail most likely would have come from [[Kansas Genealogy|Kansas]], [[Missouri Genealogy|Missouri]], [[Iowa Genealogy|Iowa]], [[Arkansas Genealogy|Arkansas]],[[Illinois Genealogy|Illinois]], [[Kentucky Genealogy|Kentucky]], or [[Tennessee Genealogy|Tennessee]].  
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American settlers who traveled the Santa Fe Trail most likely would have come from [[Kansas, United States Genealogy|Kansas]], [[Missouri, United States Genealogy|Missouri]], [[Iowa, United States Genealogy|Iowa]], [[Arkansas, United States Genealogy|Arkansas]],[[Illinois Genealogy|Illinois]], [[Kentucky, United States Genealogy|Kentucky]], or [[Tennessee, United States Genealogy|Tennessee]].  
  
=== External Links  ===
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== External Links  ==
  
*[http://www.nps.gov/safe/ National Park Service, Santa Fe Trail]&nbsp;History, stories, and map  
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*[http://www.nps.gov/safe/ National Park Service, Santa Fe Trail] History, stories, and map  
 
*NPS [http://www.nps.gov/PWR/customcf/apps/maps/mini-band.gif Santa Fe National Historic Trail Map] fairly detailed map with historical notes  
 
*NPS [http://www.nps.gov/PWR/customcf/apps/maps/mini-band.gif Santa Fe National Historic Trail Map] fairly detailed map with historical notes  
 
*[http://www.santafetrailresearch.com/ Santa Fe Trail Research] describes trail projects and research articles
 
*[http://www.santafetrailresearch.com/ Santa Fe Trail Research] describes trail projects and research articles
  
=== Sources  ===
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== Sources  ==
  
 
{{reflist}}  
 
{{reflist}}  
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{{Colorado|Colorado}}{{Kansas|Kansas}}{{Missouri|Missouri}}{{New Mexico|New Mexico}}{{Oklahoma|Oklahoma}}{{Texas|Texas}}  
 
{{Colorado|Colorado}}{{Kansas|Kansas}}{{Missouri|Missouri}}{{New Mexico|New Mexico}}{{Oklahoma|Oklahoma}}{{Texas|Texas}}  
  
[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:New_Mexico]] [[Category:Colorado, United States]] [[Category:Kansas, United States]] [[Category:Oklahoma]] [[Category:Texas]] [[Category:Missouri]]
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[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:New Mexico Migration Routes]] [[Category:Colorado Migration Routes]] [[Category:Kansas Migration Routes]] [[Category:Oklahoma Migration Routes]] [[Category:Texas Migration Routes]] [[Category:Missouri Migration Routes]]

Latest revision as of 19:30, 9 August 2020

The Santa Fe Trail was an overland international trade route, military road, and pioneer migration trail in central North America between the United States and Mexico from 1821 to 1880. The Santa Fe Trail went from Missouri through Kansas, Colorado, or sometimes Oklahoma to New Mexico.

File:Santa Fe Trail map.gif
Slowly click map twice to enlarge it. The Santa Fe Trail route appears in red.



Historical Background[edit | edit source]

Shortly after Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, William Bicknell, a merchant-trader opened the Santa Fe Trail as a lucrative trade route from Franklin, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. During most of its history, the trail was used to carry pack-trains or wagon loads of trade goods between Missouri and New Mexico. In 1846 at the start of the Mexican War the United States Army used the Santa Fe Trail to invade and later supply New Mexico. At the end of the war Mexico ceded territory that would become California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico to the United States. Some American forty-niners used the Santa Fe Trail on the way to the California goldfields. Before long, ox teams pulling wagons began to carry more and more pioneers from the expanding United States into New Mexico and the western states. Eventually, in 1880, the old wagon trail was replaced by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway which roughly followed the Santa Fe Trail Mountain Route from Kansas City into Colorado and New Mexico.[1]

Part of the reason the Santa Fe Trail was a success was that it linked the United States to two other significant trade routes, the Camino Real, and the Old Spanish Trail, all forming a hub in Santa Fe. Since 1598 the Camino Real had been used to carry settlers and goods from Mexico City and Chihuahua to Santa Fe.[2] When the Santa Fe Trail opened these Mexican goods could be traded for goods from the United States. In 1829-1830 the Old Spanish Trail also was opened connecting Los Angeles to Santa Fe making even more merchandise available for trade.[3]

Settlers followed trails because forests, mountains, rivers, lakes, or deserts blocked other routes. If an ancestor settled near a trail, you may be able to trace their place of origin back to another place along the trail.

Route[edit | edit source]

During much of its early history, the only permanent white settlement on the Santa Fe Trail was Bent's Old Fort in Colorado. Many of the following places were built later in trail history, or after the coming of the nearby Santa Fe Railway. From east to west some of the more prominent places along or near the Santa Fe Trail included:

  • Franklin, Missouri
  • Independence, Missouri
  • Council Grove, Kansas
  • Fort Larned, Kansas
  • Fort Dodge (Dodge City), Kansas
  • Lakin, Kansas

Cimarron Route (60 miles shorter but drier and less-dependable water and forage for livestock)

  • Boise, Oklahoma
  • Clayton, New Mexico

Mountain Route (60 miles longer but wetter and more-dependable water and forage for livestock)

Trails rejoin near:

  • Fort Union, New Mexico
  • Las Vegas, New Mexico
  • Santa Fe, New Mexico

Settlers[edit | edit source]

American pioneer settlers who followed the Santa Fe Trail to Colorado, or northern New Mexico would appear in land records, censuses, and possibly county histories. Few appear in lists as the earliest settlers because the Spanish speaking pioneers from old Mexico via the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro preceded them by many years.

American settlers who traveled the Santa Fe Trail most likely would have come from Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Arkansas,Illinois, Kentucky, or Tennessee.

External Links[edit | edit source]

Sources[edit | edit source]

  1. Wikipedia contributors, "Santa Fe Trail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Fe_Trail (accessed 19 July 2009).
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Camino_Real_de_Tierra_Adentro (accessed 19 July 2009).
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "Old Spanish Trail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Spanish_Trail_(trade_route) (accessed 19 July 2009).