Madison County, Missouri Genealogy

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Map Madison County, Missouri.png

United States Genealogy Gotoarrow.png Missouri, United States Genealogy Gotoarrow.png Madison County

County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

Madison County Courthouse
1 Courthouse Square
Fredericktown, MO 63645
Phone: 573.783.2176 

County Clerk has birth and death records 1883-1900 and local census 1876;
Clerk Circuit Court has marriave, divorce
and court records from 1821 and military
dischargerecords from 1943; County
Magistrate  has probate records from 1820;
County Assessor has land records from 1821

History[edit | edit source]

Madison County, Missouri was organized 14 Dec 1818 by an act of the territorial legislature. That act became effective 1 Jan 1819. The county was formed from parts of Cape Girardeau and Ste. (correct spelling) Genevieve Counties.

The county was named after President James Madison. Madison had been president until 1817, just shortly before the organization of the county, and was instrumental in facilitating the Louisiana Purchase, of which Madison County was a part.

Fredericktown is Madison County's county seat. The town is believed to have likely derived its name from the first name of one of the area's pioneer settlers, Capt. George Frederick Bollinger.

The earliest European settlement in what became Madison County was at Mine La Motte, located north of the county seat of Fredericktown. A primary motivation for early settlement was the potential for lead mining, and Mine La Motte became an early center for the manufacture of lead ammunition. Madison County is a part of the region of the state which is still referred to as the Lead Belt because of its intense mining activity in the past.

A related early settlement in what became Madison County was the French Catholic village of St. Michaels, settled in 1799 or 1800 (sources differ) and later absorbed into Fredericktown. German Reformed settlers from Bollinger County entered the area after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

The Madison County Circuit Court first met on 12 Jul 1819 in the home of Theodore F. Tong. The County Court, separate from the Circuit Court, was then organized in 1821 and first met in the home of J.G.W. McCabe. Up until that point, Madison County had been divided into three townships: St. Michaels, Liberty, and Castor. The County Court added two additional townships in 1821. These were Twelve Mile and German.

The Battle of Fredericktown took place on 21 Oct 1861 when U.S. Grant ordered Col. Plummer, heading the 11th Missouri Volunteers, to go to Fredericktown in search of Confederate troops led by Jeff Thompson. The Confederates were found about a mile outside of town, and although they were not overtaken by the Union troops, they were forced to evacuate the area and the Union army took a number of prisoners.

The county's estimated 2004 population was 11,948.

For more on the history of Madison County, Missouri, see also:

Parent County[edit | edit source]

1818--Madison County was created 14 December 1818 from Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve Counties.
County seat: Fredericktown [1]

Boundary Changes[edit | edit source]

  • See an interactive map of Madison County border changes at GenealogyInc.

Record Loss[edit | edit source]

Places/Localities[edit | edit source]

Populated Places[edit | edit source]

Unincorporated:[edit | edit source]
See also:[edit | edit source]

Neighboring Counties[edit | edit source]

Townships[edit | edit source]

Resources[edit | edit source]

General[edit | edit source]

Note that many Madison County records are available on microfilm at the Missouri State Archives in Jefferson City. For general information about Madison County records, see the following:

[edit | edit source]

General[edit | edit source]
Specific[edit | edit source]

Censuses[edit | edit source]

1830[edit | edit source]
1840[edit | edit source]
1850[edit | edit source]
1860[edit | edit source]
1870[edit | edit source]
1876 State Agricultural Census[edit | edit source]
  • 1876 State Agricultural Census: The census book is in the courthouse, Fredericktown, MO, and has been microfilmed by the State Archives, although this record appears to perhaps be incomplete. This is the only Missouri state census that has survived for Madison County.
  • Madison County State Census 1876 (book). Info in Foundation for Historic Preservation website
  • Miller, Michael G. 1876 State Census for Madison Co., Missouri: An Original Work. Fredericktown, MO: Foundation for Historical Preservation, 2001. WorldCat page
1880[edit | edit source]
1890 Special Enumeration[edit | edit source]
1900[edit | edit source]
1910[edit | edit source]
1920[edit | edit source]
1930[edit | edit source]

Churches[edit | edit source]

Court[edit | edit source]

At least one online source says that Madison County court records date back to 1827, but this appears to be incorrect. Court records for the county as microfilmed by the State Archives are extant from as early as 1820, with territorial records dating back to 1810. See Missouri State Archives Guide to County and Municipal Records on Microfilm: Madison County (pdf).

Education[edit | edit source]

Genealogies and Biographies[edit | edit source]

Land[edit | edit source]

Madison County land records date back to 1819. See Missouri State Archives Guide to County and Municipal Records on Microfilm: Madison County (pdf).

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

  • Douglass, Robert Sidney, History of Southeast Missouri, Vol. 1. Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1912. Google Books digital text | Internet Archive digital text
  • Historical Madison: The History of Madison County, Missouri 1818-1988. Fredericktown, MO: Heritage and Landmarks Commission and Madison County Historical Society, 1989.
  • History of Southeast Missouri. Chicago: The Goodspeed Publishing Co., 1888. Missouri State Archives digital copy
  • Memories of Fredericktown. Info in Foundation for Historic Preservation website
  • Mills, James E. Geological Report on the Mine La Motte Estate: The Property of Hon. Rowland Hazard, Situated in Madison County, Missouri. [n.p.:] G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co., 1877. Google Books page
  • Thompson, Henry Clay. A History of Madison County, Missouri. [no publication information: abt 1940]. (Originally published in installments in the Fredericktown Democrat News).

Maps[edit | edit source]

Military[edit | edit source]

Civil War[edit | edit source]
Civil War Battle[edit | edit source]

The following Civil War Battle was fought in Madison County

Map showing Civil War battles in Missouri

Miscellaneous[edit | edit source]

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

Probate[edit | edit source]

Madison County probate records date from 1821.

Taxation[edit | edit source]

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Birth[edit | edit source]
Marriage[edit | edit source]
Death[edit | edit source]

Societies and Libraries[edit | edit source]

Family History Centers
[edit | edit source]

Web Sites
[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America,10th ed. (Draper, UT:Everton Publishers, 2002).
  2. Heritage Preservation Services, Civil War Battle Summaries by State, (accessed 9 August 2012)