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Learn about the tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, history, and records for the indigenous peoples of Vermont.

The most prominent early indigenous tribes in Vermont were the Abénaki and Mahican. The western Abénaki were composed of subdivisions including Sokoki, Missisquoi, and Cowasuck. Most of the indigenous tribes have disappeared from Vermont through warfare, disease, or migration.

Tribes and Bands of Vermont

The following list of indigenous peoples who have lived in Vermont has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.[2] Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

World Cat has the book, "The original Vermonters : native inhabitants, past and present."

Vermont State Recognized Tribes


For the history of indigenous peoples in Vermont, see:

  • Calloway, Colin G. The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600–1800. The Civilization of the American Indian Series, v.197. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. FHL book 970.3 Ab71cc; film 1598340, item 5 This contains a chronology of the tribe and a good bibliography of sources.
  • Haviland, William A. The Original Vermonters. Hanover, New Hampshire: Published for University of Vermont by University Press of New England, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H199o At various libraries (WorldCat) This history includes information on the Abénaki and Mahican tribes in Vermont, an index, and a bibliography.
  • Vermont Indians FHL book 970.1 D228v
  • Government and Religion of the Virginia Indians. By Samuel Rivers Hendren. FHL| 497312|FHL book 970.1 H384g and FHL film 1550318 item 1 WorldCat


The New England Historic Genealogical Society has resources on New England Native peoples.

Vermont Historical Society Library - You can find articles about Vermont Indians in the VHS publications Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society (1860–1943), Vermont Quarterly (1944–1953), and Vermont History (1954–present). These periodicals and the Periodical Source Index (PERSI), which could be used to find articles on Indians, are discussed in Vermont Periodicals.


The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

For Further Reading

See also American Indian For Further Reading.


  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Digital version at Access Genealogy.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145.