Difference between revisions of "Germany Languages"

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Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holstein until Preußen annexed that area in 1864.  
 
Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holstein until Preußen annexed that area in 1864.  
 +
== Language Aids  ==
 +
*FamilySearch Wiki has genealogical '''word lists''' for:
 +
**[[German Word List]] 
 +
**[[Danish Word List]] Danish is used in some records of Schleswig-Holstein.
 +
**[[French Wordlist|French Word List]] French is used in some records of Alsace-Lorraine (Elsass-Lothringen).
 +
**[[Poland Genealogical Word List|Polish Genealogical Word List]] 
 +
**[[Portuguese Genealogical Word List]]<br>
  
See also:
+
*The German Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources.
 +
*[https://script.byu.edu/Plugins/FileManager/Files/Documents/List_of_Names_-_German.pdf '''List of Names in Old German Script'''] A comprehensive list of German  given names,  written in old script, with possible variations.
 +
*[http://altdeutsche-schrift.de/adsschreiben.php#schrifftfeld '''Old German Script Transcriber (alte deutsche Handschriften):'''] See your family names in the script of the era. Type your name or other word into the font generator tool. Click on the 8 different fonts. Save the image to your computer and use it as you work with old Germanic records.<br>
  
*[[Low German Language in German Research|Low German language]]  
+
==Handwriting==
*[[Languages in the Lower Rhine Area of Germany|languages in the Lower Rhine area]]  
+
*These links to lessons and websites will assist in learning to read the records of Germany:
*[[Spellings Variants in the Northern Rheinland|Spelling variation in the northern Rhine]] area.
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**[https://familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/375 Old German Script Part 1],  [https://familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/377 Part 2], [https://familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/426  Part 3 (German Church and Civil Records)]
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**[https://www.familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/38 Reading German Handwritten Records Lesson 1: Kurrent Letters]
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**[https://www.familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/39 Reading German Handwritten Records Lesson 2: Making Words in Kurrent]
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**[https://www.familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/40 Reading German Handwritten Records Lesson 3: Reading Kurrent Documents]
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**[https://familysearch.org/ask/learningViewer/12 German Church and Civil Records]
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**[https://script.byu.edu/Pages/the-german-documents-pages/the-german-documents(english) German Script Tutorial]
 +
**[[Deciphering German Script 1-12|Deciphering German Script 1-12]]
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**[[Deciphering German Script 25-36|Deciphering German Script 25-36]]
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**[[Deciphering German Script 13-24|Deciphering German Script 13-24]]
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**[[Schleswig-Holstein: Handwriting|Schleswig-Holstein: Handwriting]]
  
German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section and [[The Dialect Basis of Spelling Variation in German Surnames|Affect of dialects on German surnames]].  
+
*For more information about '''reading German writing''', see [[Germany Handwriting]].
  
See also: [[Spelling Variations in German Documents|spelling variations in German documents]].
+
==Downloadable Handouts==
  
=== Language Aids  ===
+
*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2F921f0807-6f69-4694-91d3-47917fa95871%2FKurrent+Letters+Handout.pdf Kurrent Letters Handout]
 +
*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fb1462e9c-7c83-42b5-ac39-9d1dad62472b%2FNumbers+Handout.pdf Numbers Handout]
 +
*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fb13f88fc-7663-4776-8270-1d8a9ad7c28e%2FBirth+Record+Handout.pdf Birth Records Handout]
 +
*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fff318037-9021-4e4d-acba-9c4770ebc806%2FMarriage+Record+Handout.pdf Marriage Records Handout]
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*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fe9549fa8-1bc0-46da-94fa-0ac2975a8704%2FDeath+Record+Handout.pdf Death Records Handout]
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*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fedbdbf50-fd9f-47a9-8a3c-087140ec8baa%2FDays+and+Months+Handout.pdf Days and Months Handout]
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*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2F6c132970-9cab-46e6-bccf-457d2f90fa6d%2FCommon+Symbols+Handout.pdf Common Symbols Handout]
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*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2F5a5a76b2-f785-4378-b86b-2aef51fe9107%2FCommon+Abbreviations+Handout.pdf Common Abbreviations Handout]
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*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fbb2ffc63-2a1c-4eab-82d6-7937c57910df%2FOccupations+Handout.pdf Occupations Handout]
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*[https://ps-services-us-east-1-914248642252.s3.amazonaws.com/s3%2Fhelp-learningcenter-fh1-prod-s3%2F2017%2F05%2F02%2Fedf248d7-6209-4e99-bf38-713f087505f9%2FCommon+Illnesses+Handout.pdf Common Illnesses Handout]
  
FamilySearch Wiki has genealogical word lists for:  
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==Fraktur Font Used in Printed Records==
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraktur_(script) Wikipedia Fraktur Script]. For a printable table showing Fraktur letters, [[Media:Fraktur_Font_help_-_Wiki.pdf|click here]].
  
*[[Danish Word List]]
+
For a printable table showing Kurrent letters in a computer font, [[Media:Kurrent_Font_Help_Wiki.pdf|click here]].
*[[French Wordlist|French Word List]]
 
*[[German Word List]]
 
*[[Poland Genealogical Word List|Polish Genealogical Word List]]
 
*[[Portuguese Genealogical Word List]]
 
  
The German Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources. For more information about reading German writing, see [[Germany Handwriting]].  
+
==Dictionaries==
 +
*The following '''books and English-German dictionaries''' can help in your research. You can find these and similar materials at many research libraries.
 +
**Thode, Ernest. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=47299&disp=German%2DEnglish+genealogical+dictionary%20%20&columns=*,0,0 German-English Genealogical Dictionary].'' Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992. (FHL book 433.21 T352g 1992.)
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**''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=259067&disp=Langenscheidt%27s+German%2DEnglish%2C+En%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Langenscheidts German-English, English-German Dictionary = Langenscheidts Deutsch-Englisches, Englisch-Deutches Wörterbuch]''. New York, NY, USA: Pocket Books, 1952, 1993. (FHL book 433.21 L262g.)
 +
**Grimm's Dictionary online can be found at this link [http://germazope.uni-trier.de/Projects/WBB/woerterbuecher/dwb/wbgui?lemid=GA00001 Dictionary of German historical words].
  
The following books and English-German dictionaries can help in your research. You can find these and similar materials at many research libraries.  
+
==Latin Aids==
 +
Other language aids for parish Latin can be found at these links:
 +
*[http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm#Auswahl Church-Book Latin]
 +
*[http://www.e-latein.de/ e-Latin]
 +
*[http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/ Latein Wörterbuch, search]
 +
*[http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/?q=bapti&con=0 Latein Wörterbuch, alphabetical list]
  
Thode, Ernest. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=47299&disp=German%2DEnglish+genealogical+dictionary%20%20&columns=*,0,0 German-English Genealogical Dictionary].'' Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992. (FHL book 433.21 T352g 1992.)
+
==Dialects and Variations==
 +
See also:  
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=259067&disp=Langenscheidt%27s+German%2DEnglish%2C+En%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Langenscheidts German-English, English-German Dictionary = Langenscheidts Deutsch-Englisches, Englisch-Deutches Wörterbuch]''. New York, NY, USA: Pocket Books, 1952, 1993. (FHL book 433.21 L262g.)
+
*[[Low German Language in German Research|Low German language]]
 +
*[[Languages in the Lower Rhine Area of Germany|Languages in the Lower Rhine area]]
 +
*[[Spellings Variants in the Northern Rheinland|Spelling variation in the northern Rhine]] area.
  
Grimm's Dictionary online can be found at this link [http://germazope.uni-trier.de/Projects/WBB/woerterbuecher/dwb/wbgui?lemid=GA00001 Dictionary of German historical words].  
+
German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section and [[The Dialect Basis of Spelling Variation in German Surnames|Affect of dialects on German surnames]].  
  
Other language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place Search of the FamilySearch Catalog under:
+
See also: [[Spelling Variations in German Documents|spelling variations in German documents]].  
 
 
:[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=383785&subject_disp=Germany+%2D+Language+and+languages&columns=*,0,0 GERMANY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES]
 
 
 
:[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=topicdetails&subject=329866&subject_disp=Germany+%2D+Language+and+languages+%2D+Dictionaries&columns=*,0,0 GERMANY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES - DICTIONARIES]
 
 
 
Also check the Subject Search of the catalog under:
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
:[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=subjecthitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&subject=German+Language&presubject=German+Language GERMAN LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES]
 
 
 
<br>Other language aids for parish Latin can be found at these links:
 
 
 
[http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm#Auswahl http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm#Auswahl]&nbsp;
 
 
 
[http://www.e-latein.de/ http://www.e-latein.de/]  
 
 
 
[http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm]
 
 
 
[http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/ http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/]
 
 
 
[http://lateinisch.bildung-infos.info/latedeus.htm http://lateinisch.bildung-infos.info/latedeus.htm]
 
 
 
[http://www.muehle-com.de/HP-Tools/html/latein.html http://www.muehle-com.de/HP-Tools/html/latein.html]
 
 
 
[http://lateinwiki.org/Hauptseite http://lateinwiki.org/Hauptseite]<br>[http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/?q=bapti&con=0 http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/?q=bapti&amp;con=0]
 
  
 
== Numbers  ==
 
== Numbers  ==
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|-
 
|-
 
| March  
 
| March  
| März, Frühlingsmonat
+
| März, Frühlingsmonat, Lenzing
 
|-
 
|-
 
| April  
 
| April  
| April, Ostermonat, Osteren
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| April, Ostermonat, Osteren,Oster
 
|-
 
|-
 
| May  
 
| May  
| Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat
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| Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat, Wonnemond
 
|-
 
|-
 
| June  
 
| June  
| Juni, Brachmonat
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| Juni, Brachmonat, Brachet
 
|-
 
|-
 
| July  
 
| July  
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|-
 
|-
 
| August  
 
| August  
| August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat
+
| August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat, Ernting
 
|-
 
|-
 
| September  
 
| September  
| September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris
+
| September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris, Scheiding
 
|-
 
|-
 
| October  
 
| October  
| Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris
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| Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris, Gilbhard
 
|-
 
|-
 
| November  
 
| November  
| November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris
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| November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris, Neblung
 
|-
 
|-
 
| December  
 
| December  
| Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris
+
| Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris, Julmond
 
|}
 
|}
  
A more extensive list of [[Month Names in German|month names in German]].  
+
A more extensive list of [[Month Names in German|month names in German]].
  
 
=== Days of the Week ===
 
=== Days of the Week ===
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|}
 
|}
  
=== Symbols  ===
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==Symbols  ==
  
 
Sometimes a symbol is used in German genealogical sources rather than abbreviations. Some of these are shown at [http://wiki-de.genealogy.net/Genealogische_Symbole_und_Zeichen GenWiki, Genealogical Symbols and Signs].  
 
Sometimes a symbol is used in German genealogical sources rather than abbreviations. Some of these are shown at [http://wiki-de.genealogy.net/Genealogische_Symbole_und_Zeichen GenWiki, Genealogical Symbols and Signs].  
  
 
<br> {{Germany|Germany}}  
 
<br> {{Germany|Germany}}  
{{H-langs|en=German Language and Languages8|fr=Allemagne : La Langue et les Langues|pt=Alemanha, Os Idiomas Germânicos}}
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[[fr:Allemagne : La Langue et les Langues]][[pt:Alemanha, Os Idiomas Germânicos]]
 
[[Category:Germany Language and Handwriting]] [[Category:Language and Handwriting]]
 
[[Category:Germany Language and Handwriting]] [[Category:Language and Handwriting]]

Revision as of 16:16, 24 April 2020

Germany Wiki Topics
Muehlhausen Thueringen .jpg
Beginning Research
Reading the Records
Record Types
Germany Background
Local Research Resources
Moderator
The FamilySearch moderator for Germany is Baerbel

Most materials used in German research are written in German. However, you do not need to speak or read German to do research in German records. You will need to know some key words and phrases to understand the records.

Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holstein until Preußen annexed that area in 1864.

Language Aids[edit | edit source]

  • The German Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources.
  • List of Names in Old German Script A comprehensive list of German given names, written in old script, with possible variations.
  • Old German Script Transcriber (alte deutsche Handschriften): See your family names in the script of the era. Type your name or other word into the font generator tool. Click on the 8 different fonts. Save the image to your computer and use it as you work with old Germanic records.

Handwriting[edit | edit source]

Downloadable Handouts[edit | edit source]

Fraktur Font Used in Printed Records[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia Fraktur Script. For a printable table showing Fraktur letters, click here.

For a printable table showing Kurrent letters in a computer font, click here.

Dictionaries[edit | edit source]

Latin Aids[edit | edit source]

Other language aids for parish Latin can be found at these links:

Dialects and Variations[edit | edit source]

See also:

German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section and Affect of dialects on German surnames.

See also: spelling variations in German documents.

Numbers[edit | edit source]

In some genealogical records, numbers are spelled out. This is especially true of dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Days of the month are written in ordinal form. Ordinal forms may have other endings, for example: erste, ersten.

Cardinal Ordinal
null
eins 1st erste
zwei 2nd zweite, zweyte
drei 3rd dritte
vier 4th vierte
fünf 5th fünfte
sechs 6th sechste
sieben 7th siebte, siebente
acht 8th achte
neun 9th neunte
zehn 10th zehnte
elf 11th elfte
zwölf 12th zwölfte
dreizehn 13th dreizehnte
vierzehn 14th vierzehnte
fünfzehn 15th fünfzehnte
sechzehn 16th sechzehnte
siebzehn 17th siebzehnte
achtzehn 18th achtzehnte
neunzehn 19th neunzehnte
zwanzig 20th zwanzigste
einundzwanzig 21st einundzwanzigste
zweiundzwanzig 22nd zweiundzwanzigste
dreiundzwanzig 23rd dreiundzwanzigste
vierundzwanzig 24th vierundzwanzigste
fünfundzwanzig 25th fünfundzwanzigste
sechsundzwanzig 26th sechsundzwanzigste
siebenundzwanzig 27th siebenundzwanzigste
achtundzwanzig 28th achtundzwanzigste
neunundzwanzig 29th neunundzwanzigste
dreißig 30th dreißigste
einunddreißig 31st einunddreißigste
vierzig 40th vierzigste
fünfzig 50th fünfzigste
sechzig 60th sechzigste
siebzig 70th siebzigste
achtzig 80th achtzigste
neunzig 90th neunzigste
hundert 100th hunderste
zweihundert 200th zwei hunderste
tausend 1000th tausendste


Dates and Time[edit | edit source]

In German records, dates are often written out. For example:

Freitag den vierzehnten Februar achtzehnhundert sechs und dreißig [Friday, the 14th of February, eighteen hundred six and thirty (1836)].

To understand German dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding “Numbers” section.

Months[edit | edit source]

English German
January Januar, Jänner, Hartung, Jenner
February Februar, Hornung
March März, Frühlingsmonat, Lenzing
April April, Ostermonat, Osteren,Oster
May Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat, Wonnemond
June Juni, Brachmonat, Brachet
July Juli, Heuert, Heumonat, Heuet
August August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat, Ernting
September September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris, Scheiding
October Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris, Gilbhard
November November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris, Neblung
December Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris, Julmond

A more extensive list of month names in German.

Days of the Week[edit | edit source]

English   German
Sunday   Sonntag
Monday   Montag
Tuesday   Dienstag
Wednesday   Mittwoch
Thursday   Donnerstag
Friday   Freitag, Freytag
Saturday   Samstag, Sonnabend

See also:


Times of the Day[edit | edit source]

German birth and death records often indicated the exact time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.

German English
ein Uhr one (o’clock)
zwei Uhr two (o’clock)
drei Uhr three (o’clock)
halb eins half one = 12:30
halb zwei half two = 1:30
halbe Stunde half hour
Stunde hour
früh early (a.m.)
spät late (p.m.)
morgens in the morning
vormittags in the forenoon
mittags at noon
nachmittags in the afternoon
abends in the evening
mitternachts at midnight

Symbols[edit | edit source]

Sometimes a symbol is used in German genealogical sources rather than abbreviations. Some of these are shown at GenWiki, Genealogical Symbols and Signs.