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Effective family research requires some understanding of the historical events that may have affected your family and the records about them. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends may help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. These events may have led to the creation of records, such as land and military documents that mention your family.
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Your ancestors will become more interesting to you if you also use histories to learn about the events in which they may have participated. For example, by using a history you might learn about the events that occurred in the year your great-grandparents were married.
+
==History==
 +
Effective family research requires some understanding of the historical events that may have affected your family and the records about them. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends may help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. These events may have led to the creation of records, such as land and military documents that mention your family.  
  
The area of Finland administered by Sweden spread from the southwest towards the east and north. The eastern boarder has fluctuated over time. The various county and parish divisions have also changed. Books about Finnish history frequently contain maps of these developments. One source that is especially useful for understanding the development of political, ecclesiastical, judicial, and military jurisdictions is:
+
Your ancestors will become more interesting to you if you also use histories to learn about the events in which they may have participated. For example, by using a history you might learn about the events that occurred in the year your great-grandparents were married.
  
Jutikkala, Eino. Suomen historian kartasto: Atlas of Finnish History. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö (WSOY), 1949. (FHL book 948.97 E3j; film 157159.)
+
The area of Finland administered by Sweden spread from the southwest towards the east and north. The eastern border has fluctuated over time. The various county and parish divisions have also changed. Books about Finnish history frequently contain maps of these developments. One source that is especially useful for understanding the development of political, ecclesiastical, judicial, and military jurisdictions is:
  
An informative overview of the use and availability of historical and archival sources in Finland is:
+
*Jutikkala, Eino. Suomen historian kartasto: Atlas of Finnish History. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö (WSOY), 1949. (FHL book 948.97 E3j; film 157159.)
  
Suomen historian asiakirjalähteet (Documentary Sources of Finland’s History). Helsinki: Kansallisarkisto WSOY, 1994. (FHL book 948.97 H2sha.)
+
An informative overview of the use and availability of historical and archival sources in Finland is:  
  
Some key dates and events in the history of Finland are:
+
*Suomen historian asiakirjalähteet (Documentary Sources of Finland’s History). Helsinki: Kansallisarkisto WSOY, 1994. (FHL book 948.97 H2sha.)
  
1050 or 1150–1300 The Swedes engaged in Christian crusades to Finland.
+
==Timeline==
 +
Some key dates and events in the history of Finland are:
  
1300 The Turku Cathedral was dedicated.
+
'''1050 or 1150–1300''' The Swedes engaged in Christian crusades to Finland.  
  
1350 The black plague occurred.
+
'''1300''' The Turku Cathedral was dedicated.  
  
1397–1521 The Kalmar Union united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one ruler.
+
'''1350''' The black plague occurred.  
  
1523 Gustav Vasa was crowned king of Sweden.
+
'''1397–1521''' The Kalmar Union united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one ruler.  
  
1527 The Diet of Västerås proposed changing the official religion from Catholicism to Lutheranism.
+
'''1523''' Gustav Vasa was crowned king of Sweden.  
  
1530s The government began keeping continuous tax records.
+
'''1527''' The Diet of Västerås proposed changing the official religion from Catholicism to Lutheranism.  
  
1548 Mikael Agricola’s translation of the New Testament in Finnish was published.
+
'''1530s''' The government began keeping continuous tax records.  
  
1569 Titles of nobility were made hereditary in Sweden-Finland.
+
'''1548''' Mikael Agricola’s translation of the New Testament in Finnish was published.  
  
1570 The Älvsborg Ransom was issued, resulting in the silver tax (see the "[[Finland Taxation|Taxation]]" section of this outline for more information).
+
'''1569''' Titles of nobility were made hereditary in Sweden-Finland.  
  
1570s Finnish migration to central Sweden began.
+
'''1570''' The Älvsborg Ransom was issued, resulting in the silver tax (see [[Finland Taxation]] for more information).  
  
1593 Meeting of clergy in Uppsala adopted Lutheranism over Catholicism.
+
'''1570s''' Finnish migration to central Sweden began.  
  
1611–32 Gustav II Adolf reigned as king of Sweden.
+
'''1593''' Meeting of clergy in Uppsala adopted Lutheranism over Catholicism.  
  
1626 The government decreed that provincial military regiments were to be established. These regiments supported Swedish involvement in the Thirty Years’ War.
+
'''1611–32''' Gustav II Adolf reigned as king of Sweden.  
  
1640 Åbo Academy (university in Turku) was founded.
+
1626 The government decreed that provincial military regiments were to be established. These regiments supported Swedish involvement in the Thirty Years’ War.  
  
1642 The Bible was published in Finnish.
+
1640 Åbo Academy (university in Turku) was founded.  
  
1686 A church law prescribed that parishes should begin keeping records.
+
1642 The Bible was published in Finnish.  
  
1700–21 The Great Nordic War involved Sweden-Finland and Russia.
+
1686 A church law prescribed that parishes should begin keeping records.  
  
1734 A new common law was established to instigate estate inventories (probates).
+
1700–21 The Great Nordic War involved Sweden-Finland and Russia.  
  
1753 Sweden-Finland made the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.
+
1734 A new common law was established to instigate estate inventories (probates).  
  
1808–09 The Finnish War. Sweden lost Finland to Russia.
+
1753 Sweden-Finland made the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.  
  
1809 At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland was granted autonomy within the Russian Empire.
+
1808–09 The Finnish War. Sweden lost Finland to Russia.  
  
1812 "Old Finland" (Viipuri County) was joined to Finland. The capital moved from Turku to Helsinki.
+
1809 At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland was granted autonomy within the Russian Empire.  
  
1835 Kalevala, the Finnish national epic, was published. It contributed to the rise of Finnish nationalism.
+
1812 "Old Finland" (Viipuri County) was joined to Finland. The capital moved from Turku to Helsinki.  
  
1863 Finnish was proclaimed equal to Swedish as the official language.
+
1835 Kalevala, the Finnish national epic, was published. It contributed to the rise of Finnish nationalism.  
  
1901 The Finnish army was abolished. Finns were to join the Russian army.
+
1863 Finnish was proclaimed equal to Swedish as the official language.  
  
1906 Women were given right to vote.
+
1901 The Finnish army was abolished. Finns were to join the Russian army.  
  
1917 Finland declared its independence from Russia.
+
1906 Women were given right to vote.  
  
1918 Finnish socialists and nonsocialists fought a civil war.
+
1917 Finland declared its independence from Russia.  
  
1920 A law decreed that fixed surnames were mandatory.
+
1918 Finnish socialists and nonsocialists fought a civil war.  
  
1939–40 Finland fought the Winter War against the Soviet Union.
+
1920 A law decreed that fixed surnames were mandatory.  
  
1941–44 Finland fought the Continuation War against the Soviet Union.
+
1939–40 Finland fought the Winter War against the Soviet Union.  
  
1944 Finland fought the Lapland War against Germany.
+
1941–44 Finland fought the Continuation War against the Soviet Union.  
  
1995 Finland joined the European Union.
+
1944 Finland fought the Lapland War against Germany.  
  
The following are only a few of the many historical sources that are available at the Family History Library. Books with film numbers can be ordered through local Family History Centers. Some may be found in major research libraries.
+
1995 Finland joined the European Union.  
  
Jutikkala, Eino, and Kauko Pirinen. A History of Finland. Espoo: Weilin & Göös, 1984. (FHL book 948.97 H2juti.)
+
The following are only a few of the many historical sources that are available at the Family History Library. Books with film numbers can be ordered through local family history centers. Some may be found in major research libraries.  
  
Juva, Einar W. Suomen kansan historia (A History of the Finnish People). 5 vols. Helsinki: Otava, 1964–67. (FHL book 948.97 H2ju.)
+
Jutikkala, Eino, and Kauko Pirinen. A History of Finland. Espoo: Weilin & Göös, 1984. (FHL book 948.97 H2juti.)  
  
Finlands historia (Finland’s History). 3 vols. Esbo: Schildts, 1992–96. (FHL book 948.97 H2fi.)
+
Juva, Einar W. Suomen kansan historia (A History of the Finnish People). 5 vols. Helsinki: Otava, 1964–67. (FHL book 948.97 H2ju.)  
  
=== Local Histories ===
+
Finlands historia (Finland’s History). 3 vols. Esbo: Schildts, 1992–96. (FHL book 948.97 H2fi.)
  
Some of the most valuable sources for family history research are local histories. They describe the settlement of the area and the founding of churches, schools, and businesses. You can also find information about locally prominent people and lists of farm owners. Even if your ancestor is not mentioned, you may find information on other relatives that can provide important clues for locating the him or her. A local history may also suggest other records to search.
+
=== Local Histories  ===
  
In addition, you can study and enjoy local histories for the background information they can provide about your ancestor’s lifestyle, community, and environment.
+
Some of the most valuable sources for family history research are local histories. They describe the settlement of the area and the founding of churches, schools, and businesses. You can also find information about locally prominent people and lists of farm owners. Even if your ancestor is not mentioned, you may find information on other relatives that can provide important clues for locating the him or her. A local history may also suggest other records to search.  
  
The Family History Library has some local histories for towns and parishes in Finland. Similar histories are often available at major public and university libraries and archives as well. To find general and local histories, look in the Locality Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:
+
In addition, you can study and enjoy local histories for the background information they can provide about your ancestor’s lifestyle, community, and environment.  
  
FINLAND - HISTORY
+
The Family History Library has some local histories for towns and parishes in Finland. Similar histories are often available at major public and university libraries and archives as well. To find general and local histories, look in the Locality Search of the FamilySearch Catalog under:
  
FINLAND, [COUNTY] - HISTORY
+
FINLAND - HISTORY  
  
FINLAND, [COUNTY], [PARISH] - HISTORY
+
FINLAND, [COUNTY] - HISTORY  
  
To find bibliographies that list works about Finnish history, check under:
+
FINLAND, [COUNTY], [PARISH] - HISTORY
  
FINLAND- BIBLIOGRAPHY
+
To find bibliographies that list works about Finnish history, check under:
  
FINLAND- HISTORY- BIBLIOGRAPHY
+
FINLAND- BIBLIOGRAPHY  
  
=== Calendar Changes ===
+
FINLAND- HISTORY- BIBLIOGRAPHY
  
The Gregorian calendar is the calendar commonly used today. It is a correction of the Julian calendar that had been used since a.d. 46. Because leap years had been miscalculated in the Julian calendar, by 1582 the calendar was 10 days behind the solar year.
+
=== Calendar Changes  ===
  
In Finland the last day of the Julian calendar was 17 February 1753. At that time, 11 days were omitted to bring the calendar in line with the solar year. The day after 17 February 1753 became 1 March 1753.
+
The Gregorian calendar is the calendar commonly used today. It is a correction of the Julian calendar that had been used since a.d. 46. Because leap years had been miscalculated in the Julian calendar, by 1582 the calendar was 10 days behind the solar year.  
  
When you are looking for information about Finns who spent time in Russia after 1753, remember that Russia continued using the Julian calendar until after the revolution in 1917.
+
In Finland the last day of the Julian calendar was 17 February 1753. At that time, 11 days were omitted to bring the calendar in line with the solar year. The day after 17 February 1753 became 1 March 1753.
 +
 
 +
When you are looking for information about Finns who spent time in Russia after 1753, remember that Russia continued using the Julian calendar until after the revolution in 1917.  
 +
 
 +
{{Place|Finland}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Finland]] [[Category:History]]

Latest revision as of 06:34, 26 January 2019

Finland Wiki Topics
Finland Flag.png
Beginning Research
Record Types
Finland Background
Cultural Groups
Local Research Resources

History[edit | edit source]

Effective family research requires some understanding of the historical events that may have affected your family and the records about them. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends may help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. These events may have led to the creation of records, such as land and military documents that mention your family.

Your ancestors will become more interesting to you if you also use histories to learn about the events in which they may have participated. For example, by using a history you might learn about the events that occurred in the year your great-grandparents were married.

The area of Finland administered by Sweden spread from the southwest towards the east and north. The eastern border has fluctuated over time. The various county and parish divisions have also changed. Books about Finnish history frequently contain maps of these developments. One source that is especially useful for understanding the development of political, ecclesiastical, judicial, and military jurisdictions is:

  • Jutikkala, Eino. Suomen historian kartasto: Atlas of Finnish History. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö (WSOY), 1949. (FHL book 948.97 E3j; film 157159.)

An informative overview of the use and availability of historical and archival sources in Finland is:

  • Suomen historian asiakirjalähteet (Documentary Sources of Finland’s History). Helsinki: Kansallisarkisto WSOY, 1994. (FHL book 948.97 H2sha.)

Timeline[edit | edit source]

Some key dates and events in the history of Finland are:

1050 or 1150–1300 The Swedes engaged in Christian crusades to Finland.

1300 The Turku Cathedral was dedicated.

1350 The black plague occurred.

1397–1521 The Kalmar Union united Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under one ruler.

1523 Gustav Vasa was crowned king of Sweden.

1527 The Diet of Västerås proposed changing the official religion from Catholicism to Lutheranism.

1530s The government began keeping continuous tax records.

1548 Mikael Agricola’s translation of the New Testament in Finnish was published.

1569 Titles of nobility were made hereditary in Sweden-Finland.

1570 The Älvsborg Ransom was issued, resulting in the silver tax (see Finland Taxation for more information).

1570s Finnish migration to central Sweden began.

1593 Meeting of clergy in Uppsala adopted Lutheranism over Catholicism.

1611–32 Gustav II Adolf reigned as king of Sweden.

1626 The government decreed that provincial military regiments were to be established. These regiments supported Swedish involvement in the Thirty Years’ War.

1640 Åbo Academy (university in Turku) was founded.

1642 The Bible was published in Finnish.

1686 A church law prescribed that parishes should begin keeping records.

1700–21 The Great Nordic War involved Sweden-Finland and Russia.

1734 A new common law was established to instigate estate inventories (probates).

1753 Sweden-Finland made the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.

1808–09 The Finnish War. Sweden lost Finland to Russia.

1809 At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland was granted autonomy within the Russian Empire.

1812 "Old Finland" (Viipuri County) was joined to Finland. The capital moved from Turku to Helsinki.

1835 Kalevala, the Finnish national epic, was published. It contributed to the rise of Finnish nationalism.

1863 Finnish was proclaimed equal to Swedish as the official language.

1901 The Finnish army was abolished. Finns were to join the Russian army.

1906 Women were given right to vote.

1917 Finland declared its independence from Russia.

1918 Finnish socialists and nonsocialists fought a civil war.

1920 A law decreed that fixed surnames were mandatory.

1939–40 Finland fought the Winter War against the Soviet Union.

1941–44 Finland fought the Continuation War against the Soviet Union.

1944 Finland fought the Lapland War against Germany.

1995 Finland joined the European Union.

The following are only a few of the many historical sources that are available at the Family History Library. Books with film numbers can be ordered through local family history centers. Some may be found in major research libraries.

Jutikkala, Eino, and Kauko Pirinen. A History of Finland. Espoo: Weilin & Göös, 1984. (FHL book 948.97 H2juti.)

Juva, Einar W. Suomen kansan historia (A History of the Finnish People). 5 vols. Helsinki: Otava, 1964–67. (FHL book 948.97 H2ju.)

Finlands historia (Finland’s History). 3 vols. Esbo: Schildts, 1992–96. (FHL book 948.97 H2fi.)

Local Histories[edit | edit source]

Some of the most valuable sources for family history research are local histories. They describe the settlement of the area and the founding of churches, schools, and businesses. You can also find information about locally prominent people and lists of farm owners. Even if your ancestor is not mentioned, you may find information on other relatives that can provide important clues for locating the him or her. A local history may also suggest other records to search.

In addition, you can study and enjoy local histories for the background information they can provide about your ancestor’s lifestyle, community, and environment.

The Family History Library has some local histories for towns and parishes in Finland. Similar histories are often available at major public and university libraries and archives as well. To find general and local histories, look in the Locality Search of the FamilySearch Catalog under:

FINLAND - HISTORY

FINLAND, [COUNTY] - HISTORY

FINLAND, [COUNTY], [PARISH] - HISTORY

To find bibliographies that list works about Finnish history, check under:

FINLAND- BIBLIOGRAPHY

FINLAND- HISTORY- BIBLIOGRAPHY

Calendar Changes[edit | edit source]

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar commonly used today. It is a correction of the Julian calendar that had been used since a.d. 46. Because leap years had been miscalculated in the Julian calendar, by 1582 the calendar was 10 days behind the solar year.

In Finland the last day of the Julian calendar was 17 February 1753. At that time, 11 days were omitted to bring the calendar in line with the solar year. The day after 17 February 1753 became 1 March 1753.

When you are looking for information about Finns who spent time in Russia after 1753, remember that Russia continued using the Julian calendar until after the revolution in 1917.