Chickasaw Nation

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Various spellings: Chickasaw, Chickesa, Chicasa

Original homeland on the northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, western Kentucky and eastern Arkansas.

The Chickasaw Nation is primarily associated with the state of Oklahoma. [1].

One of the Five Civilized Tribes: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole

Linguistic group: Muskhogean

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

Chickasaw Nation Headquarters
P.O. Box 1548
Ada, OK 74821
Phone: 1-580-436-2603

Chickasaw Cultural Center
867 Cooper Memorial Dr.
Sulphur, Ok 73086-8697
Phone: 1-580-622-7130

Chickasaw Historical Society
P.O. Box 1548
Ada, Oklahoma 74821

Tribal Library
1003 Chamber Loop
Ada, Oklahoma 74870
P. O. Box 1548

Genealogist on staff to serve patrons

History[edit | edit source]

Their first recorded encounter with non Indian was with the Spanish explorer De Soto in 1540.

The tribe had inter-tribal conflicts with the Choctaw, Creeks, Cherokee, Illinois, Kickapoo, Shawnee, Mobilians, Osage and Quapaw.

The Chickasaw are the smallest group of the Five Civilized Tribes. Before removing to Indian Territory the tribe sent (1830) a group to inspect the land of the proposed relocation. The group rejected the proposed land, which voided the treaty and removal. This same process reoccurred in 1832, 1835 and 1836. Finally in 1837 the Chickasaw leaders met with the Choctaw leaders near Fort Towson in Indian Territory and agreed to pay the Choctaw for the part of the Choctaws' region in southern Indian Territory.

The tribe was divided into several groups for the removal leaders included: Colonel A.M.M.Upshaw, John M. Millard, Captain Joe A. Phillips, Dr. C.G. Keenan, W.R. Guy, Chief Ishtehopa, Kin-hi-cha, and Chief Sealy with Lieutenant Governor Morris and Daniel McCurtain an interpreter. Some groups took the overland route and other a water route. The Groups arrived at Memphis November of 1837, from Memphis many took steamships under the direction of Captain Simeon Buckner to Fort Coffee.Some traveled by land directed by Langtree, Welbourne, and John M.Millard.

Gibson, Arrell M. The Chickasaws. Norman University of Oklahoma Press. FHL book 970.3 C432g

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

  • 1729: Natchez Revolt, the Natchez joined the Chickasaw
  • 1754-1763: During the French and Indian War were allies of the British
  • 1786: Hopewell Treaty; northern boundary of the Ohio River. 1786
  • 1809-11: Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, tried to unite Indians against the United States
  • 1822: some moved west of the Mississippi
  • 1832: Treaty
  • 1833: Treaty of Pontotoc Creek
  • 1836: at Doakson near Fort Towson the Chickasaws agreed to pay $530,000 to the Choctaws for the central and western portion of the Choctaws' region in southern Indian Territory. [2]
  • 1837: Treaty of Doaksville, a group of 450-500 removed to Indian Territory
  • 1838-1839 Removal to Indian Territory. Tishomingo a Chickasaw statesman died of Smallpox, on the trail. Buried at Fort Coffee. Tishomingo was over 100 years old, his commissions in the Army was signed by George Washington. [3]
  • 1839: 300 Chickasaw arrive in Indian Territory
  • 1841: 145 Chickasaw migrated
  • 1842: 198 Chickasaw migrated
  • 1844: 138 Chickasaw and 56 slaves moved west
  • 1847: Census in Oklahoma Territory
  • 1855: June 22, Treaty separating land of Chickasaw and Choctaw. [4]
  • 1856: Chickasaw Nation is created, Nation divided into four counties: Pickens, Pontotoc, Panola, and Tishomingo
  • 1861: The Chickasaw Nation declared its independence in May, and joined the Confederacy in July.
  • 1866: Treaty at Washington 1866 renewing their compact with the U.S. government. They agreed to abolish slavery, and provide railroad rights-of-way through their country.
  • 1889: First Land Rush, 50,000 new settlers
  • 1890: Oklahoma Territory
  • 1893: Land Rush 100,000 new settlers
  • 1897: First Oil Boom
  • 1898: The Curtis Act forced the Chickasaw and other Indian Nations to consider allotment and to terminated independent government on May 4, 1906.
  • 1906: Twin territories: Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory
  • 1907: Oklahoma became the 46th State
  • Chickasaw Nation divided in to thirteen counties: Grady, McClain,Garvin, Pontotoc, Stephens, Carter, Murray, Johnston, Jefferson, Love, Marshall, Bryan and Coal Counties
  • 1907-1983: the Chickasaw Nation ceased and the office of their governor was through presidential appointment.
  • 1953: U.S. Congress began a new policy of termination for the Indian tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all Indian-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban relocation program. American Indians could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many Indians relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle.It is estimated that 750,000 Native American migrated to the cities between 1950-1980.
  • 1968: Indian Civil Rights Act restored the right to hold popular elections.

Additional References to the History of the Tribe[edit | edit source]

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Chickasaw tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Records[edit | edit source]

The Family History Library has Chickasaw Nation Records. Microfilm of original at the Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division, 1971 FHL films 1,666,136 first film (31 microfilms) Records include: census, citizenship, court, laws and treaties, school, land and property, taxation, and probate records.

Chickasaw National Records: Tishomingo County, Indian Territory by Marion Traer Downs. FHL book 970.3 C432dm Volumes 1-4

Chickasaw Nation records: Ponotoc County, Indian Territory by Marion Traer Downs. FHL book 970.3C432dmp vol. 1 and 2

Agency Records, 1883-1945. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Muskogee Area Office FHL film 1205785

Chickasaw, an analytical dictionary: chikashshanompaat lisso toba'chi by Pamela Munro FHL book 497.3321 M926c

Allotment[edit | edit source]

Early land records 1893-1928; general indexes to mortgages and liens, 1901-1907 Carter County (Oklahoma) Courthouse FHL film 2295209 item 2

Allotment Register 1890-1909 (McClain County, Oklahoma. United States. Office of Indian Affairs Union Agency (Muskogee, Oklahoma) FHL film 207,903 item 6 and Land Register by Dawes Commission, 1890-1909 FHL film 2,107,718 item 1

Allotment Record Five Civilized Tribes 1899-1907 Dawes Commission NARA 75 FHL 4124768 and at FamilySearch on line

Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians homestead and allotment patents, 1903-1910 FHL film 2107720 items 2-3

Land and Property records (Atoka County, Oklahoma) FHL film 2196198 item 2

The Territory Times index to chattel mortgages in the Chickasaw Nation: mortgages from Johnston and Marshall Counties Oklahoma FHL book 976.66 R2t Vol 1-4

Township maps of the Chickasaw Nation, 1902-1907 FHL film 2297851 item 5

Annuity[edit | edit source]

Annuity Rolls of 1857-1860 and the "1855" Chickasaw District Roll of 1856. by K.M. Armstrong and Bob Curry. Heritage Books, Inc. Maryland FHL book 970.3 C432a

1878 Annuity Rolls and 1890 Census of Pontotoc Co., Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory (now McClain Co. and portions of Grady, Garvin, Murray, Pontotoc, Johnston and Coal Counties, Oklahoma) by Joyce A. Rex.C. 1990 McClain Co., Historical Society, Purcell, OK. FHL book FHL book 970.3 C432rj or microfiche FHL fiche 6125933

Census Records[edit | edit source]

1818 Chickasaw Census - an annuity roll

Chickasaw Emigration Roll1839 (Upshaw Roll). Prepared by A.M.M. Upshaw abstracted from National Archives Filming (M1831 Miscellaneous Indian Removal Rolls, 1832-1846) of 1980 Record Group 75 Records of Bureau of Indian Affairs Edited and Indexed by Larry S. Watson C. Histree 1994 FHL Book: 970.3 C432ce

1847 Chickasaw Indian Census Roll Indian Territory, 1839 Chickasaw Indian Census Roll Indian Territory, 1837 Chickasaw Indian Census (Muster) Roll Mississippi. Abstracted and edited by Bennie Coffey Loftin and Johnny Cudd Published by Pittsburg County Genealogical and Historical Society, 113 E. Carl Albert Parkway, McAlester, Oklahoma 74501-5039. FHL Book 970.3 C432ci

1890 Census of the Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory by Joyce A. Rex. FHL book 970.3 C432rja Volumes 1-2

Church Records[edit | edit source]

The Goodland Indian Orphanage: a story of Christian Missions. by Sammy D. Hogue FHL book 970.1 H874r two vol. FHL fiche 6038268

Correspondence[edit | edit source]

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 Roll Number FHL Film Number
Chickasaw Chickasaw Agency,1824-70 Washington D.C. Rolls 135-48 1,660,865-78
Chickasaw Choctaw Agency, 1855-74 Washington D.C. Rolls 169-96 1,660,899-926
Chickasaw Muskogee Area Office, 1870-1952 Fort Worth - -
Chickasaw Union Agency, 1875-1914 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 865-77 1,661,595-607

Emigration[edit | edit source]

Chickasaw Emigration Roll 1839 (Upshaw Roll) 1839 Chickasaw Census. prepared by A.M.M. Upshaw abstracted from National Archives Filming of 1980 Record Group 75 of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Edited by Larry S. Watson. C.1994 Histree. FHL book 970.3 C432ce

Enrollment[edit | edit source]

Enrollment of the Five Civilized Tribes: Dawes Commission 1896-1909 Commission to the Five Civilized Tribe.

History[edit | edit source]

Nations Remembered: an oral history of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminoles in Oklahoma 1865-1907 FHL Collection

Listening to Our Grandmothers' Stories: the Bloomfield Academy for Chickasaw females, 1852-1949. by Amanda J. Cobb. FHL book 970.3 C432ca

The Chickasaw Freedmen: A People Without a County. by Daniel F. Littlefield Jr. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980. FHL Collection Worldcat

Military[edit | edit source]

Compiled Military Service records of Major Uriah Blue's detachment of Chickasaw Indians in the War of 1812 National Archives M1829 FHL film 2311051

The Union Indian Brigade in the Civil War. by Wiley Britton FHL 824340

Indices of Choctaw and Chickasaw Confederate Soldiers FHL book 970.1 OL8i

Muster Lists of the Creek and Other Confederate Indians. by Sherman Lee Pompey

Compiled Service records of Confederate Soldiers who served in organization raised directly by the Confederate government (1861-1865) United States. War Department. Records and Pension Office FHL film 880,286

Genealogical Records of the Confederate Indian Troops, by Sherman Lee Pompey C. 1984 FHL book 970.1 P772g or fiche 6049323

World War I Draft Registration Cards 1917-1918 FHL film 1509347and on line

Indian Pioneer Papers[edit | edit source]

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."[5] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [6] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Chickasaw, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Some of the surnames from the Chickasaw tribe found in the collection are: Airington, Colbert (Mead), Laber, Kemp, Minto-ho-yo (Mead).

The Indian Pioneer Papers are available through the Family History Library and FamilySearch centers microfiche number:6,016,865 (first fiche) FHL fiche 6016865

Periodicals[edit | edit source]

The Journal of Chickasaw History. by Chickasaw Historical Society "item FHL fiche 6038350

Chickasaw Times by Chickasaw Nation On line

Removal[edit | edit source]

The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.


Removal Treaty

Years of Emigration


Before Removal





stayed in Southeast


of Interest



Chief Samuel Sealy,

Chief Ish-te-ho-to-pa,


William McGilvery,


Pitman Colbert, Henry Love,

Pontotoc Creek October 20, 1832

Government Leader over Removal:

Henry B. Carter, A.M.M. Upshaw,

Benjamin Reynolds,

John M. Millard, W.R. Guy, Joe A. Phillips, and Dr. C.G. Keenan


1842-1843 280 more Chickasaw Indians removed to Indian Territory

1846 sixty-four more emigrated

1847 forty-four emigrated

4,914 +1,156 Black Slaves 4,000 500-800 100s

The Chickasaw Indians payed for their removal out of their tribal funds arriasing from the sale of their lands.

References (see also:chart)

1. Anderson, William L., ed. Cherokee Removal: Before and After. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8203-1482-X.

2. Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0-385-23953-X

3. Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: the Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932, 11th printing 1989. ISBN 0-8061-1172-0

4.Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Volume I. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8032-3668-9.

Superintendency Records[edit | edit source]

Records of the Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1813-1878. Office of Indian Affairs FHL film 1602893

Records of the Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1832-1870 Office of Indian Affairs, FHL film 1602871

Treaties[edit | edit source]

The year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.

  • 1786 January 10, at Hopewell
  • 1801 October 24, at Chickasaw Bluffs
  • December 17, 1801
  • 1805 July 23,
  • January 7, 1806, in Cherokee treaty
  • August 9, 1814, Creek treaty
  • 1816 September 20, at Chickasaw Council House
  • October 19, 1818, at Chickasaw Old Town
  • 1830 August 31, at Franklin
  • 1832 October 20, at Chickasaw Council House (Pontitock)
  • 1832 October 22, supplementary
  • 1834 May 24,
  • 1837 January 17, at Doaksville
  • 1852 June 22, at Washington
  • 1854 November 4, at Doaksville
  • 1855 June 22, at Washington
  • 1865 September 13, at Fort Smith
  • 1866 April 28, at Washington
  • July 4, 1866, Delaware treaty

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Chickasaw Nation Marriages, Ardmore courthouse. by Mary Turner Kinard FHL fiche 6067174 and 60671705

McClain County Oklahoma Marriages, 1863-1895: "Old" Pontotoc County Chickasaw Nation. Indian Territory. McClain Co. Historical Society FHL fiche 6067295

FamilySearch Catalog[edit | edit source]

The FamilySearch Catalog has over 220 records of interest to the Chickasaw Indians[1]

Important Web Sites[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
  2. Indian Removal. by Grant Foreman.Universty of Oklahoma Press. C. 1932. FHL book 970.1 F761i
  3. History of Johnston County, Oklahoma compiled by Johnston County History Books Committee Curtis Media Corporation C 1988
  4. History of Johnston County, Oklahoma compiled by Johnston County History Books Committee Curtis Media Corporation C 1988
  5. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  6. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; Family History Library book 970.1 R259e.
  • Lennon, Rachal Mills. Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. FHL Book 970.1 L548t.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; Family History Library book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 Vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 Vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; Family History Library book970.1 W146e 2006.

There are several groups of American Indians or Native Americans. Some are considered tribes, while others are considered bands or groups within those tribes.