Difference between revisions of "Cherokee Nation"

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'''''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indians]] [[Arkansas]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[North Carolina Genealogy|North Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Oklahoma Genealogy|Oklahoma]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[South Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Tennessee]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Arkansas]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of North Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Oklahoma]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of South Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Tennessee]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' Cherokee Indians'''
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'''''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples of the United States Genealogy|Indigenous Peoples of the US]] [[Arkansas]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[North Carolina Genealogy|North Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Oklahoma, United States Genealogy|Oklahoma]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[South Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Tennessee]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples  of Arkansas]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples  of Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples of North Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples  of Oklahoma]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples  of South Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indigenous Peoples  of Tennessee]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' Cherokee Nation'''
 
<br><br>
 
<br><br>
 
Guide to '''{{PAGENAME}} ancestry, family history and genealogy:''' birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.  
 
Guide to '''{{PAGENAME}} ancestry, family history and genealogy:''' birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.  
 +
  
 
{{infobox ethnic group
 
{{infobox ethnic group
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}}  
 
}}  
  
Cherokee Tribe is one of the [[Five Civilized Tribes|Five Civilized Tribes]]: Cherokee, [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw]], [[Chickasaw Indians|Chickasaw]], [[Creek Indians|Creek]] and [[Seminole Indians|Seminole]] Indians
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Cherokee Tribe is one of the [[Five Civilized Tribes|Five Civilized Tribes]]: [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee]], [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw]], [[Chickasaw Indians|Chickasaw]], [[Creek Indians|Creek]] and [[Seminole Nation|Seminole]]
  
 
'''Leaders: '''Sequoyah, Elias Boudinot, [http://nancywardcherokee.blogspot.com Nancy Ward]  
 
'''Leaders: '''Sequoyah, Elias Boudinot, [http://nancywardcherokee.blogspot.com Nancy Ward]  
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'''Bands:'''  
 
'''Bands:'''  
  
*[[Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina|Eastern Band Cherokee]]  
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*[[Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina|Eastern Band Cherokee]]
*[[United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma|United Keetoowah]]: many are descendants of the "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817.  
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*[[United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma|United Keetoowah]]: many are descendants of the "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817.
*[http://echotacherokeetribe.homestead.com/ Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama]  
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*[http://echotacherokeetribe.homestead.com/ Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama]
*Oconaluftee Cherokee  
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*Oconaluftee Cherokee
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Cherokees Texas Band of Cherokee Indians]  
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Cherokees Texas Band of Cherokee]
 
*[http://www.canadianok.com/Kiamichi.html Western Band Of Cherokee]
 
*[http://www.canadianok.com/Kiamichi.html Western Band Of Cherokee]
  
== Tribal Headquarters ==
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==Tribal Headquarters==
  
 
'''Cherokee Nation Tribal''' '''Headquarters'''<br>P.O. Box 948<br>Tahlequah, OK 74465<br>Phone: 1-918-453-5000  
 
'''Cherokee Nation Tribal''' '''Headquarters'''<br>P.O. Box 948<br>Tahlequah, OK 74465<br>Phone: 1-918-453-5000  
  
*Official Web Site of the [http://www.cherokee.org/ Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma]
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*Official Website of the [http://www.cherokee.org/ Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma]
  
 
'''Cherokee Heritage Center - Cherokee National Historical Society'''<br> 21192 S. Keller Drive<br>Park Hill, OK 74451 <br>Phone: 1-918-456-6007<br>  
 
'''Cherokee Heritage Center - Cherokee National Historical Society'''<br> 21192 S. Keller Drive<br>Park Hill, OK 74451 <br>Phone: 1-918-456-6007<br>  
  
Mailing Address:  
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'''Mailing Address:'''
 +
 
 +
PO Box 515 Tahlequah, OK 74465-0515
  
PO Box 515 Tahlequah,OK 74465-0515
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* Official Website of the [https://www.cherokeeheritage.org/ Cherokee Heritage Center]
  
== History ==
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==History==
  
The Spanish explorer De Soto was the first to encounter the Cherokee in the1540's.  
+
The Spanish explorer De Soto was the first to encounter the Cherokee in the 1540s.  
  
 
During the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War the tribe supported the British.  
 
During the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War the tribe supported the British.  
  
By 1820 a group that had tired of the encroachment by settler migrated to Indian Territory which is now Arkansas.  
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By 1820 a group that had tired of the encroachment by settlers migrated to Indian Territory which is now Arkansas.  
  
 
Sequoya (George Grist) a mixed blood, developed the Cherokee alphabet, helping to make the tribe a literate people.  
 
Sequoya (George Grist) a mixed blood, developed the Cherokee alphabet, helping to make the tribe a literate people.  
  
In the 1830's gold was discovered in their Nation, this became a catalyst for removal. With the signing of the Treaty of New Echota, December 29, 1835 the tribe sold their remaining land and agreed to move west of the Mississippi.  
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In the 1830s gold was discovered in their Nation, this became a catalyst for removal. With the signing of the Treaty of New Echota, December 29, 1835 the tribe sold their remaining land and agreed to move west of the Mississippi.  
  
The removal to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) occurred in the winter of 1838-1839, with a 800 mile journey, this became known as the "Trail of Tears", with a loss of one-fourth of their tribe. They joined an earlier group known as "old settlers" who had been in Arkansas. Another group that had been in Mexico (Texas) was forced by government troops to move, they went to the mountains of North Carolina where in 1842, they obtained permission to stay. The Texas group are now a part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.  
+
The removal to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) occurred in the winter of 1838-1839, with an 800 mile journey, this became known as the "Trail of Tears", with a loss of one-fourth of their tribe. They joined an earlier group known as "old settlers" who had been in Arkansas. Another group that had been in Mexico (Texas) was forced by government troops to move, they went to the mountains of North Carolina where in 1842, they obtained permission to stay. The Texas group are now a part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.  
  
 
The Cherokee were slave owners, and resided in areas encompassed by southern influence many of them enlisted in the Confederate Army. A Treaty signed in 1866 remitted them to the United States. They were required to release their slaves. Others had joined the Union Army.  
 
The Cherokee were slave owners, and resided in areas encompassed by southern influence many of them enlisted in the Confederate Army. A Treaty signed in 1866 remitted them to the United States. They were required to release their slaves. Others had joined the Union Army.  
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There are three band of Cherokee recognized by the Federal government; Cherokee Nation, [[Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina|Eastern Band of Cherokee]], and [[United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma|United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee]]  
 
There are three band of Cherokee recognized by the Federal government; Cherokee Nation, [[Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina|Eastern Band of Cherokee]], and [[United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma|United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee]]  
  
== Brief Timeline ==
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==Brief Timeline==
  
*'''1689-1763:''' [[French and Indian War, 1754-1763|French and Indian War]], the Cherokee supported the English  
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*'''1689-1763:''' [[French and Indian War, 1754-1763|French and Indian War]], the Cherokee supported the English
*1710-1715 The Cherokee and Chickasaw were allies with the British and fought the Shawnee who were alies with the French  
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*1710-1715 The Cherokee and Chickasaw were allies with the British and fought the Shawnee who were alies with the French
*'''1721''': The Governor of the Carolinas signed the Cherokee Treaty. This was one of the first concession of land.  
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*'''1721''': The Governor of the Carolinas signed the Cherokee Treaty. This was one of the first concession of land.
*'''1736:''' Jesuit Mission was founded  
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*'''1736:''' Jesuit Mission was founded
*'''1738-1750:''' Smallpox epidemics  
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*'''1738-1750:''' Smallpox epidemics
*'''1775-83:''' During Revolutionary War supported the British  
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*'''1775-83:''' During Revolutionary War supported the British
*'''1800: '''"Moravian," Protestant missionaries of German origin, established the first mission at Spring Place.  
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*'''1800: '''"Moravian," Protestant missionaries of German origin, established the first mission at Spring Place.
*'''1801-1823:''' An Indian agent, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Return_J._Meigs,_Sr. Return J. Meigs], lived among the Cherokee.  
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*'''1801-1823:''' An Indian agent, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Return_J._Meigs,_Sr. Return J. Meigs], lived among the Cherokee.
*'''1805-1833:''' The State of Georgia holds eight lotteries to distribute land seized from the Cherokee and Creeks  
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*'''1805-1833:''' The State of Georgia holds eight lotteries to distribute land seized from the Cherokee and Creeks
*'''1806:''' a Federal road from Savannah, Georgia to Knoxville, Tennessee was built through Cherokee land.  
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*'''1806:''' a Federal road from Savannah, Georgia to Knoxville, Tennessee was built through Cherokee land.
*'''1816:''' [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/I/IN018.html Lovely's Purchase]. [[Osage Indians|Osage]] agreed to cede land in Arkansas to the United States for the Cherokee people.  
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*'''1816:''' [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/I/IN018.html Lovely's Purchase]. [[Osage Indians|Osage]] agreed to cede land in Arkansas to the United States for the Cherokee people.
*'''1817:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Turkeytown "Treaty of Turkeytown"] finalized the exchange for land in [[Indians of Arkansas|Arkansas]]. The "Old Settlers" begin their migration.  
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*'''1817:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Turkeytown "Treaty of Turkeytown"] finalized the exchange for land in [[Indians of Arkansas|Arkansas]]. The "Old Settlers" begin their migration.
*'''1819-1821:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoyah Sequoyah] (George Gist) created the Cherokee alphabet.  
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*'''1819-1821:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoyah Sequoyah] (George Gist) created the Cherokee alphabet.
*'''1827: '''Tribal leaders recorded their constitution  
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*'''1827: '''Tribal leaders recorded their constitution
*'''1828:''' [[Indians of Georgia|Georgia]] held a lottery for Cherokee lands.  
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*'''1828:''' [[Indians of Georgia|Georgia]] held a lottery for Cherokee lands.
*'''1828:''' ''Cherokee Phoenix,'' a bilingual newspaper, contained columns in both English and Cherokee. Editor -- Elias Boudinot  
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*'''1828:''' ''Cherokee Phoenix,'' a bilingual newspaper, contained columns in both English and Cherokee. Editor -- Elias Boudinot
*'''December 1835:''' Treaty of New Echota, traded Cherokee lands in the southeast for land in Indian Territory (Oklahoma)  
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*'''December 1835:''' Treaty of New Echota, traded Cherokee lands in the southeast for land in Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
*'''1838: '''First Group; Start of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears Trail of Tears], 800-mile journey; 1838-39 - Second group; 4,000 Cherokees died  
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*'''1838: '''First Group; Start of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears Trail of Tears], 800-mile journey; 1838-39 - Second group; 4,000 Cherokees died
*Cherokee Nation created and divided into the following '''districts''' or counties: Canadian, Cooweescoowee, Delaware, Going Snake, Flint, Illinois, Saline, Sequoyah and Tahlequah  
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*Cherokee Nation created and divided into the following '''districts''' or counties: Canadian, Cooweescoowee, Delaware, Going Snake, Flint, Illinois, Saline, Sequoyah and Tahlequah
*'''1851''' Drennen Roll, Is a roll of the Cherokee Emigrants who were forced to remove from the Cherokee Nation and the Old Settlers who moved voluntarily before the forced removal.&nbsp;  
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*'''1851:''' Drennen Roll, Is a roll of the Cherokee Emigrants who were forced to remove from the Cherokee Nation and the Old Settlers who moved voluntarily before the forced removal.&nbsp;
*'''1861:''' Beginning of the [[American Indians in the Civil War|Civil War]]. A treaty was signed between the Cherokee Nation and the Confederate government.  
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*'''1861:''' Beginning of the [[American Indians in the Civil War|Civil War]]. A treaty was signed between the Cherokee Nation and the Confederate government.
*'''1861-1865:''' Civil War Some Cherokee fought with the Confederate and others with the Union  
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*'''1861-1865:''' Civil War Some Cherokee fought with the Confederate and others with the Union
*'''1865:<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1271186596656_863" /> '''Eastern Band lost many to a smallpox epidemic  
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*'''1865:'''Eastern Band lost many to a smallpox epidemic
*'''1866:''' July 19, Treaty provided for the cession of the Cherokee "neutral lands" in [[Indians of Kansas|Kansas]]. Indians living on the land could receive a patent to 320 acres but stipulated that they would no longer be members of the Cherokee nation.The treaty also gave emancipation to all the Cherokee slaves. and citizenship to the Cherokee freedmen. <br>  
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*'''1866:''' July 19, Treaty provided for the cession of the Cherokee "neutral lands" in [[Indians of Kansas|Kansas]]. Native Americans living on the land could receive a patent to 320 acres but stipulated that they would no longer be members of the Cherokee nation. The treaty also gave emancipation to all the Cherokee slaves. and citizenship to the Cherokee freedmen. <br>
*'''1880:''' Cherokee Nation Census FHL film 989204  
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*'''1880:''' Cherokee Nation Census FHL film 989204
*'''1887:''' General [[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment Act]] passed. This act required individual ownership of lands once held in common by the Cherokee people.  
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*'''1887:''' General [[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment Act]] passed. This act required individual ownership of lands once held in common by the Cherokee people.
*'''1889:''' Unassigned lands in Indian Territory were opened to white settlers. ([[Oklahoma Land and Property|Oklahoma Land Rush]])  
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*'''1889:''' Unassigned lands in Indian Territory were opened to white settlers. ([[Oklahoma Land and Property|Oklahoma Land Rush]])
*'''1893:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_Outlet Cherokee Outlet] was opened for white settlers.  
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*'''1893:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_Outlet Cherokee Outlet] was opened for white settlers.
*'''1898:''' The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtis_Act_of_1898 Curtis Act] dismantled tribal governments.  
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*'''1898:''' The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtis_Act_of_1898 Curtis Act] dismantled tribal governments.
*'''1906:''' A final agreement was reached between the federal government and the Cherokee people.The [[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission]] (all [[Five Civilized Tribes]]: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cree and Seminole) created the enrollment records.  
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*'''1906:''' A final agreement was reached between the federal government and the Cherokee people. The [[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission]] (all [[Five Civilized Tribes]]: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cree and Seminole) created the enrollment records.
*'''1907:''' Oklahoma became the 46th State.  
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*'''1907:''' Oklahoma became the 46th State.
*Cherokee Nation divided into '''ten counties''': Adair, Cherokee, Craig, Delaware, Maynes, Nowata, Rogers, Sequoyah, Tulsa, and Washington  
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*Cherokee Nation divided into '''ten counties''': Adair, Cherokee, Craig, Delaware, Maynes, Nowata, Rogers, Sequoyah, Tulsa, and Washington
*'''1909:''' [[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll|Guion Miller Rolls]], Cherokee only, who applied for a share of the money from a law suit settlement against the United States  
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*'''1909:''' [[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll|Guion Miller Rolls]], Cherokee only, who applied for a share of the money from a law suit settlement against the United States
*'''1953:''' U.S. Congress began a new policy of [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/t/te014.html termination] for the Indian tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all Indian-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/t/te014.html relocation ]program. American Indians could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many Indians relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle.It is estimated that 750,000 Native American migrated to the cities between 1950-1980. <br>  
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*'''1953:''' U.S. Congress began a new policy of [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/t/te014.html termination] for the Native American tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all native-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/t/te014.html relocation] program. Native Americans could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many indigenous people relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle. It is estimated that 750,000 Native Americans migrated to the cities between 1950-1980. <br>
 
*'''1968:''' [http://www.tribal-institute.org/lists/icra1968.htm Indian Civil Rights Act] restored the right to hold popular elections.
 
*'''1968:''' [http://www.tribal-institute.org/lists/icra1968.htm Indian Civil Rights Act] restored the right to hold popular elections.
  
 
'''Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands'''  
 
'''Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands'''  
  
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cherokee/cherohist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1264036454169_785" />], gave a more complete history of the Cherokee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/the-indian-tribes-of-north-america.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
+
*Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [https://accessgenealogy.com/native/cherokee-tribe.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Cherokee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [https://accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook-of-american-indians-north-of-mexico.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].
*Benjamin Greenleaf. Cherokee Almanac. 1860. FHL Film 989199 item 3  
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*Benjamin Greenleaf. Cherokee Almanac. 1860. FHL Film 989199 item 3
 
*Fredrea Marilyn Hermann Cook. Forgotten Oklahoma Records. Cullman, Alabama: Gregath Co., 1981. FHL Book 970.3 C424co
 
*Fredrea Marilyn Hermann Cook. Forgotten Oklahoma Records. Cullman, Alabama: Gregath Co., 1981. FHL Book 970.3 C424co
  
== Jurisdictions ==
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==Jurisdictions==
  
=== The Cherokee Tribe was under the following jurisdictions: ===
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===The Cherokee Tribe was under the following jurisdictions:===
  
==== Agencies ====
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====Agencies====
  
The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>  
+
The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters. They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>  
  
*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]  
+
*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]  
+
*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]  
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*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]  
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]  
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*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]  
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*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]  
+
*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
 
*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
 
*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
  
*[[Cherokee Indian Agency (North Carolina)|Cherokee Agency]] (North Carolina and [[Cherokee Indian Agency (Arkansas)|Arkansas]])  
+
*[[Cherokee Indian Agency (North Carolina)|Cherokee Agency]] (North Carolina and [[Cherokee Indian Agency (Arkansas)|Arkansas]])
 
*[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]]
 
*[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]]
  
==== Reservations ====
+
====Reservations====
  
*'''Qualla Reservation '''for Eastern Cherokees, in Swain and Jackson counties, North Carolina  
+
*'''Qualla Reservation '''for Eastern Cherokees, in Swain and Jackson counties, North Carolina
 
*'''Cheowah Reservation '''in Graham county, North Carolina
 
*'''Cheowah Reservation '''in Graham county, North Carolina
  
==== Superintendency ====
+
====Superintendency====
  
*[[Arkansas Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arkansas Superintendency]]  
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*[[Arkansas Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arkansas Superintendency]]
*[[Western Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Western Superintendency]]  
+
*[[Western Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Western Superintendency]]
*[[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]  
+
*[[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]
 
*[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
 
*[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
  
== Records ==
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==Records==
  
 
Cherokee Nation. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives (Vital, Land and Property, Court, Probate, and School records) {{FHL|529945|item|disp=FHL film 1666294}} first of 129 films  
 
Cherokee Nation. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives (Vital, Land and Property, Court, Probate, and School records) {{FHL|529945|item|disp=FHL film 1666294}} first of 129 films  
  
*Genealogy; Cherokee Notes by James Manford Carselowey. 1980. {{FHL| 768983|item|disp= FHL Book: 970.3 C424jmc}}  
+
*Genealogy; Cherokee Notes by James Manford Carselowey. 1980. {{FHL| 768983|item|disp= FHL Book: 970.3 C424jmc}}
*Records of the Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, 1801-1835. {{FHL|285733|item|disp=FHL film 1024418}}  
+
*Records of the Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, 1801-1835. {{FHL|285733|item|disp=FHL film 1024418}}
*Cherokee Almanac, 1860. by Benjamin Greenleaf {{FHL|276475|item|disp=FHL Film 989199 Item 3}}  
+
*Cherokee Almanac, 1860. by Benjamin Greenleaf {{FHL|276475|item|disp=FHL Film 989199 Item 3}}
 
*Cherokee Almanac, 1861. By Benjamin Greenleaf {{FHL|737764|item|disp=FHL Fiche 6333956}}
 
*Cherokee Almanac, 1861. By Benjamin Greenleaf {{FHL|737764|item|disp=FHL Fiche 6333956}}
  
=== Agency Records ===
+
===Agency Records===
  
 
Agency Records 1898-1950 (East) Cherokee Agency. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. {{FHL|144388|item|disp=FHL film 1249974}} first film of 7  
 
Agency Records 1898-1950 (East) Cherokee Agency. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. {{FHL|144388|item|disp=FHL film 1249974}} first film of 7  
Line 153: Line 156:
 
Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, 1801-1835. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (M0208) {{FHL|285733|item|disp= FHL 1024418}} first of 14 films  
 
Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, 1801-1835. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (M0208) {{FHL|285733|item|disp= FHL 1024418}} first of 14 films  
  
=== Allotment Records ===
+
===Allotment Records===
  
 
*Five Civilized Indian Tribes Land Allotment Records, 1899-1907, (NARA RG 75) Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. On Line. {{FHL |1390101|item|disp=FHL film 4124879}} first film
 
*Five Civilized Indian Tribes Land Allotment Records, 1899-1907, (NARA RG 75) Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. On Line. {{FHL |1390101|item|disp=FHL film 4124879}} first film
  
*Forgotten Oklahoma Records ( Allotment) by Fredrea Marilyn Hermann Cook. 1981. {{FHL|105053|item|disp= Film: 1035512}} item 4 or FHL Book: 970.3 C424co  
+
*Forgotten Oklahoma Records ( Allotment) by Fredrea Marilyn Hermann Cook. 1981. {{FHL|105053|item|disp= Film: 1035512}} item 4 or FHL Book: 970.3 C424co
 
*Township Plats, Cherokee Nation. Tahlequah, Oklahoma. {{FHL|118773|item|disp= FHL Film: 989209}}
 
*Township Plats, Cherokee Nation. Tahlequah, Oklahoma. {{FHL|118773|item|disp= FHL Film: 989209}}
  
=== Annuity Records ===
+
===Annuity Records===
  
 
Annuity Records, 1905-1910 {{FHL|29521|item|disp=FHL film 1030883}}  
 
Annuity Records, 1905-1910 {{FHL|29521|item|disp=FHL film 1030883}}  
  
=== Census Records ===
+
===Census Records===
  
*'''1835''' [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~itcherok/genealogy/rolls-census.htm Cherokee Nation]  
+
*'''1835''' [https://web.archive.org/web/20170714171241/http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~itcherok/genealogy/rolls-census.htm Cherokee Nation]
*1835 Henderson Roll (Eastern Cherokee) (most detailed census) enumerated 16,000 Cherokees residing in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee. [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/284332?availability=Family%20History%20Library Film: 833322]<br>  
+
*1835 Henderson Roll (Eastern Cherokee) (most detailed census) enumerated 16,000 Cherokees residing in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee. [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/284332 Film: 833322]<br>
*1835,1837,1838 Cherokee Muster Rolls (Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee) {{FHL|908999|disp=Film: 908999}} Item 2  
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*'''1835, 1837, 1838''' Cherokee Muster Rolls (Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee) {{FHL|908999|disp=Film: 908999}} Item 2
*1848 [http://cherokeeregistry.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=387&Itemid=582 Mullay Roll] Census of Cherokees remaining in North Carolina.  
+
*'''1848''' [http://cherokeeregistry.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=387&Itemid=582 Mullay Roll] Census of Cherokees remaining in North Carolina.
*'''1851''' [http://www.tngennet.org/cherokee_by_blood/chapman.htm Chapman Roll]  
+
*'''1851''' [http://www.tngennet.org/cherokee_by_blood/chapman.htm Chapman Roll]
*'''1851''' [https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/drennen-rolls.htm Drennen Roll] (Eastern Cherokees who came west after 1835) {{FHL|924606|disp=Film: 924606}} item 5  
+
*'''1851''' [https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/drennen-rolls.htm Drennen Roll] (Eastern Cherokees who came west after 1835) {{FHL|924606|disp=Film: 924606}} item 5
*'''1851 '''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/settlers.php Old Settler Roll] (A list of Cherokee still living in1851 who lived in Indian Territory before 1839)  
+
*'''1851 '''[https://accessgenealogy.com/oklahoma/old-settlers-roll.htm Old Settler Roll] (A list of Cherokee still living in 1851 who lived in Indian Territory before 1839)
*1851 Siler Roll, list of Eastern Cherokees entitled to payments per the 1835  
+
*'''1851''' Siler Roll, list of Eastern Cherokees entitled to payments per the 1835
*'''1852 '''Siler Roll {{FHL|970.3 C424sd|disp=Book: 970.3 C424sd }}  
+
*'''1852 '''Siler Roll {{FHL|970.3 C424sd|disp=Book: 970.3 C424sd }}
*1852: [http://www.tngenweb.org/cherokee_by_blood/chapman.htm Chapman Roll,] supplement to the Siler Roll  
+
*'''1852''': [http://www.tngenweb.org/cherokee_by_blood/chapman.htm Chapman Roll,] supplement to the Siler Roll
*'''1854''' Roll Cherokee Indians prepared by Mallay [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]  
+
*'''1854''' Roll Cherokee Indians prepared by Mallay [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]
*1867 Powell Roll, census of North Carolina Cherokees entitled to annuity payments  
+
*'''1867''' Powell Roll, census of North Carolina Cherokees entitled to annuity payments
*1869 [http://cherokeeregistry.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=387&Itemid=582 Swetland Roll] updated the Mullay Roll made to facilitate removal payments  
+
*'''1869''' [http://cherokeeregistry.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=387&Itemid=582 Swetland Roll] updated the Mullay Roll made to facilitate removal payments
*'''1880''' Cherokee Census [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com] {{FHL|989204|disp=Film: 989204}}  
+
*'''1880''' Cherokee Census [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com] {{FHL|989204|disp=Film: 989204}}
*1884 [http://www.fold3.com/browse.php#1%7Ch0ytupYXi1A5w-A6DjleGcwGQ Hester Roll] census of the remaining Eastern Cherokees in 1883  
+
*'''1884''' [https://accessgenealogy.com/native/native-american-indian-rolls.htm Hester Roll] census of the remaining Eastern Cherokees in 1883
*'''1890 '''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/wallace.php Wallace Roll - Cherokee Freedmen] (African Americans - Cherokee citizenship)  
+
*'''1890 '''[https://accessgenealogy.com/native/wallace-roll.htm Wallace Roll - Cherokee Freedmen] (African Americans - Cherokee citizenship)
*1890 Eastern Band of Cherokees {{FHL|1009060|disp=FHL film: 1009060}} item 5  
+
*'''1890''' Eastern Band of Cherokees {{FHL|1009060|disp=FHL film: 1009060}} item 5
*1890 Census of the Cherokee Nation, Canadian District.{{FHL|779062|item|disp=FHL film 1666296}}  
+
*'''1890''' Census of the Cherokee Nation, Canadian District.{{FHL|779062|item|disp=FHL film 1666296}}
*1896 Tahlequah District {{FHL|989203|disp=Film: 989203}} item 2  
+
*'''1896''' Tahlequah District {{FHL|989203|disp=Film: 989203}} item 2
*'''1896-1897 '''Kern - Clifton Roll [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com] (contains 4523 individuals missed on the Wallace Roll.)  
+
*'''1896-1897 '''Kern - Clifton Roll [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com] (contains 4523 individuals missed on the Wallace Roll.)
*'''1898-1939''' Indian Census rolls, Cherokee {{FHL| 737657|item|disp= FHL film 573869}} first of five  
+
*'''1898-1939''' Indian Census rolls, Cherokee {{FHL| 737657|item|disp= FHL film 573869}} first of five
*'''1924 '''Baker Roll [http://www.easternband.com www.easternband.com] also on {{FHL|847744|disp=Film: 847744}} and {{FHL|847745|disp=Film: 847745}}  
+
*'''1924''' [https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/1924-baker-roll.htm Baker Roll] also on {{FHL|847744|disp=Film: 847744}} and {{FHL|847745|disp=Film: 847745}}
*Maude Bliss Allen, Census Records and Cherokee Muster Rolls. Washington, 1935. {{FHL|970.1 Al|disp=FHL Book 970.1 Al}} #54  
+
*Maude Bliss Allen, Census Records and Cherokee Muster Rolls. Washington, 1935. {{FHL|970.1 Al|disp=FHL Book 970.1 Al}} #54
*1896 Census of Citizens of Tahlequah District, Cherokee Nation {{FHL|989203|disp=FHL Film 989203}} item 2
+
*'''1896''' Census of Citizens of Tahlequah District, Cherokee Nation {{FHL|989203|disp=FHL Film 989203}} item 2
  
 
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census rolls on many of the reservations from 1885-1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here.]] <br>  
 
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census rolls on many of the reservations from 1885-1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records [[American Indian Census Rolls|click here.]] <br>  
Line 197: Line 200:
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | '''Tribe'''  
+
! scope="col" |'''Tribe'''
! scope="col" | '''Agency'''  
+
! scope="col" |'''Agency'''
! scope="col" | '''Location of Original records'''  
+
! scope="col" |'''Location of Original records'''
! scope="col" |  
+
! scope="col" |
 
'''Post - 1885 Census'''  
 
'''Post - 1885 Census'''  
  
Line 207: Line 210:
 
'''Roll Number'''  
 
'''Roll Number'''  
  
! scope="col" |  
+
! scope="col" |
 
'''FHL'''  
 
'''FHL'''  
  
Line 215: Line 218:
  
 
|-
 
|-
|  
+
|
 
Cherokee  
 
Cherokee  
  
 
North Carolina  
 
North Carolina  
  
|  
+
|
 
Cherokee Indian Agency,  
 
Cherokee Indian Agency,  
  
 
1886-1952  
 
1886-1952  
  
| Atlanta  
+
|Atlanta
| Roll 22  
+
|Roll 22
| FHL Films: 573,868-573,872
+
|FHL Films: 573,868-573,872
 
|-
 
|-
| -  
+
| -
| 1898-1914  
+
|1898-1914
| -  
+
| -
| -  
+
| -
| FHL Film:573,868
+
|FHL Film:573,868
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 240: Line 243:
 
'''Additional Census Records Available through the Family History Library'''  
 
'''Additional Census Records Available through the Family History Library'''  
  
*Mullary Roll 1848, Siler Roll 1851, 1852, Chapman Roll 1852, Swetland Roll 1869 and Hester Roll 1883 {{FHL|847743|disp=Film: 847743}} Item 2  
+
*Mullary Roll 1848, Siler Roll 1851, 1852, Chapman Roll 1852, Swetland Roll 1869 and Hester Roll 1883 {{FHL|847743|disp=Film: 847743}} Item 2
*Revised Roll 1924-1970 {{FHL|847746|disp=Films: 847746-847748}}  
+
*Revised Roll 1924-1970 {{FHL|847746|disp=Films: 847746-847748}}
*Historical Roll 1908, Churchill Roll 1908, Baker Roll 1924, Miller Roll 1909, Baker-revised Roll 1967 {{FHL|847749|disp=Film: 847749}}  
+
*Historical Roll 1908, Churchill Roll 1908, Baker Roll 1924, Miller Roll 1909, Baker-revised Roll 1967 {{FHL|847749|disp=Film: 847749}}
*''The Cherokee Phoenix'', 1828-1835. {{FHL|825726|disp=Film: 825726}}  
+
*''The Cherokee Phoenix'', 1828-1835. {{FHL|825726|disp=Film: 825726}}
*''Cherokee Advocate'', October 1844-September 1846, {{FHL|989202|disp=Film: 989202}} item 7  
+
*''Cherokee Advocate'', October 1844-September 1846, {{FHL|989202|disp=Film: 989202}} item 7
*''Cherokee One Feather'', 1969-1973. {{FHL|Film: 965784}} item 4 and {{FHL|979257|disp=Film 979257}} item 8
+
*[https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/260726 ''Cherokee One Feather''], 1969-1973.
 
*Probate Records 1892-1908, Northern District Cherokee Nation by Orpha Jewell Wever {{FHL|976.6 P2w|disp=Book: 976.6 P2w}} <br>
 
*Probate Records 1892-1908, Northern District Cherokee Nation by Orpha Jewell Wever {{FHL|976.6 P2w|disp=Book: 976.6 P2w}} <br>
  
=== Church Records ===
+
===Church Records===
  
1817- 1861 The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions  
+
* '''1817 - 1861''' The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions  
  
1803 Moravian Missions  
+
* '''1803''' Moravian Missions  
  
1817 Baptist Missions and Missionaries  
+
* '''1817''' Baptist Missions and Missionaries  
  
1822 Methodist Missions  
+
* '''1822''' Methodist Missions  
  
 
See: [[Moravian Church in the United States|Moravian Church]] Records  
 
See: [[Moravian Church in the United States|Moravian Church]] Records  
  
Crews, C. Daniel and Richard W. Starbuck. Records of the Moravians Among the Cherokees. Early Contact and the Establishment of the First Mission 1752-1802. Cherokee National Press. Tahlequah, OK FHL book 970.3 C424cdm Vol. C. 2010. [http://www.worldcat.org/title/faith-and-tears-the-moravian-mission-among-the-cherokee/oclc/44430426 WorldCat]  
+
Crews, C. Daniel and Richard W. Starbuck. Records of the Moravians Among the Cherokees. Early Contact and the Establishment of the First Mission 1752-1802. Cherokee National Press. Tahlequah, OK FHL book 970.3 C424cdm Vol. C. 2010. [http://www.worldcat.org/title/faith-and-tears-the-moravian-mission-among-the-cherokee/oclc/44430426 WorldCat]  
  
Crews, Daniel C. and Richard W. Starbuck. With Courage for the Future: The Story of the Moravian Church Southern Province Winston-Salem: Moravian Church in America, Southern Province, 2002.FHL 973 K3cw [http://www.worldcat.org/title/with-courage-for-the-future-the-story-of-the-moravian-church-southern-province-1751-2003/oclc/866353972 WorldCat]<br>
+
Crews, Daniel C. and Richard W. Starbuck. With Courage for the Future: The Story of the Moravian Church Southern Province Winston-Salem: Moravian Church in America, Southern Province, 2002. FHL 973 K3cw [http://www.worldcat.org/title/with-courage-for-the-future-the-story-of-the-moravian-church-southern-province-1751-2003/oclc/866353972 WorldCat]<br>
  
 
McLoughlin. William G. Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.FHL 970.3 mw [http://www.worldcat.org/title/cherokees-and-missionaries-1789-1839/oclc/866399877 WorldCat]<br>
 
McLoughlin. William G. Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.FHL 970.3 mw [http://www.worldcat.org/title/cherokees-and-missionaries-1789-1839/oclc/866399877 WorldCat]<br>
Line 270: Line 273:
 
Starr, Emmet. ''Early History of the Cherokees&nbsp; Embracing Aboriginal Customs, Religion, Laws, Fork Lore and Civilization''. 1917. FHL&nbsp;970.3 C424sea [http://www.worldcat.org/title/early-history-of-the-cherokees-embracing-aboriginal-customs-religion-laws-folk-lore-and-civilization/oclc/738334024 WorldCat]
 
Starr, Emmet. ''Early History of the Cherokees&nbsp; Embracing Aboriginal Customs, Religion, Laws, Fork Lore and Civilization''. 1917. FHL&nbsp;970.3 C424sea [http://www.worldcat.org/title/early-history-of-the-cherokees-embracing-aboriginal-customs-religion-laws-folk-lore-and-civilization/oclc/738334024 WorldCat]
  
=== Citizenship ===
+
===Citizenship===
  
Cherokee citizenship documents, 1880. Oklahoma Historical Society Indian Archives Division. {{FHL|785232|disp= FHL film 1666350}} item 3
+
* '''1880''' [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/785232 Cherokee citizenship documents, 1880.] Oklahoma Historical Society Indian Archives Division.
  
== Enrollment Records ==
+
==Enrollment Records==
  
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission Enrollment]] for [[Five Civilized Tribes]]  
+
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission Enrollment]] for [[Five Civilized Tribes]]
 
*Eastern Cherokee - [[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll|Guion Miller]]
 
*Eastern Cherokee - [[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll|Guion Miller]]
  
Find out if you are a [http://www.cherokee-nc.com/genealogy-check2.php?page=108 Cherokee] by having your ancestor's name checked to the 1924 Baker Roll.  
+
Find out if you are a [https://www.archives.gov/research/microfilm/m2104.pdf Cherokee] by having your ancestor's name checked to the 1924 Baker Roll.  
  
''Only the Names Remain''. by Sandi Garrett {{FHL|684750|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 C424gs Vol 1-6 }}  
+
''Only the Names Remain''. by Sandi Garrett {{FHL|684750|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 C424gs Vol 1-6 }}
  
== Removal ==
+
==Removal==
  
The [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Indian.html Indian Removal Act] was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.  
+
The [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Indian.html Indian Removal Act] was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of Native Americans tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.  
  
*Cherokee Emigration Rolls, 1817-1835. by Jack D. Baker. {{FHL|58571|item|disp= FHL Book: 970.3 C424be}}  
+
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/131051882 List and Schedule of Cherokees and their Families Enrolled for Emigration West Since July 1, 1833. NAID 131051882 - National Archives Catalog]
*Lists of North Carolina Cherokee who removed to the Cherokee Nation West, Cherokee (Tahlequah). Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division {{FHL|77891|item|disp= FHL film 1666295 item 3 }}  
+
*Cherokee Emigration Rolls, 1817-1835. by Jack D. Baker. {{FHL|58571|item|disp= FHL Book: 970.3 C424be}}
 +
*Lists of North Carolina Cherokee who removed to the Cherokee Nation West, Cherokee (Tahlequah). Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division {{FHL|77891|item|disp= FHL film 1666295 item 3 }}
 
*Garrett,Sandi. ''AKA Also Known As''. Cherokee and Pioneer names they were known by before and after the forced removal {{FHL|669764|item|disp=FHL book 9703 424ak}} '''These books link the Drennen Roll (1851) and the Guion Miller (1906-1910) Applications together to help establish family connections.'''&nbsp;
 
*Garrett,Sandi. ''AKA Also Known As''. Cherokee and Pioneer names they were known by before and after the forced removal {{FHL|669764|item|disp=FHL book 9703 424ak}} '''These books link the Drennen Roll (1851) and the Guion Miller (1906-1910) Applications together to help establish family connections.'''&nbsp;
 
<br>
 
 
{| width="249" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center"
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Nation
 
! scope="col" |
 
Removal
 
 
Treaty
 
 
! scope="col" | Years of Emigration
 
! scope="col" |
 
Population
 
 
Before Removal
 
 
! scope="col" |
 
Number
 
 
Emigrated
 
 
! scope="col" | Deaths
 
! scope="col" |
 
Number
 
 
stayed in Southeast
 
 
! scope="col" | Information of Interest
 
|-
 
|
 
'''Cherokee'''
 
 
Georgia [http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/government-politics/george-r-gilmer-1790-1859 Governor: Gilmer],
 
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winfield_Scott Gen. Winfield Scott]
 
 
Gen. Nat Smith
 
 
Benjamin F. Currey,
 
 
Gen. John Ellis Wool,<br>
 
 
B.B. Cannon,
 
 
Lt.
 
 
R.H.K . Whiteley,
 
 
Lt. Deas,<br>
 
 
George Hicks,
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
|
 
1816
 
 
Treaty 1828
 
 
March 30,1830 Removal Bill
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/che0439.htm New Echota] December 29,1835
 
 
'''Indian Leaders:'''
 
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jolly Chief John Jolly],
 
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ridge John Ridge], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goingsnake Going Snake], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ross_%28Cherokee_chief%29 Chief John Ross],
 
 
Nocowee, John Martin,[http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=8078912 William Shorey Coodey],
 
 
John Walker Jr., James Starr,
 
 
Edward Adair,
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
|
 
1830 - 500 James Rogers and mixed blood members of tribe
 
 
<br>
 
 
1831 - 626 tribal members emigrated <br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br> 1836-1838
 
 
|
 
<br> 21,500 + 2,000 Black Slaves
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
|
 
20,000 + 2,000 Slaves<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
|
 
2,000-4,000
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
|
 
1,000
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
|
 
829 miles
 
 
Agent George Vashon
 
 
Cherokee vs. United States - Supreme court; Chief Justice Marshall
 
 
<br>
 
 
Jeremiah Evarts (Missionary)
 
 
Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, Rev. Evan Jones,
 
 
[http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/History/TrailofTears/CherokeeNationvStateofGeorgia.aspx ''Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831'']
 
 
<br>[http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/government-politics/worcester-v-georgia-1832 ''Worchester v. Georgia, 1832'']
 
 
|}
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
*"Indexes to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served During the Cherokee Disturbances and Removal in Organizations From the State of Tennessee and the Field and Staff of the Army of the Cherokee Nation" (NARA M908) ({{FHL|1205384|disp=FHL film 1205384}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/17249016 Worldcat]) The compiled service records have not been microfilmed.
 
*"Indexes to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers who Served During the Cherokee Disturbances and Removal in Organizations From the State of Tennessee and the Field and Staff of the Army of the Cherokee Nation" (NARA M908) ({{FHL|1205384|disp=FHL film 1205384}}) ([http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/17249016 Worldcat]) The compiled service records have not been microfilmed.
  
 
:The above collection is also available online:  
 
:The above collection is also available online:  
:*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1267 U.S. Army Indian Campaign Service Records Index] (Ancestry) ($) - brows-able only.
+
:*[https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/61592/ U.S. Army Indian Campaign Service Records Index, 1815-1858] (Ancestry) ($)
  
*The [http://www.okhistory.org/research/removal?full Oklahoma Historical Society ]site and research center has excellent information on Indian Removal,Census, Freedman Resources, Tribes in Oklahoma, Timelines for the removal of the Cherokee tribe and more.
+
*The [https://okhistory.pastperfectonline.com/ Oklahoma Historical Society] site and research center has excellent information on Indian Removal, Census, Freedman Resources, Tribes in Oklahoma, Timelines for the removal of the Cherokee tribe and more.
  
*1835 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/trail_of_tears.htm Trail of Tears]  
+
*1835 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/trail_of_tears.htm Trail of Tears]
*Journal of Rev. Daniel S. Butrick by Trail of Tears Association  
+
*''Cherokee Removal:  The Journal of Rev. Daniel S. Butrick''. by Trail of Tears Association. FHL book 970.3 Cv424bds
*Library and Archives of Thomsas Gilcrease - Institute of American History
+
*Library and Archives of Thomas Gilcrease - Institute of American History in Tulsa, Oklahoma
  
== Newspapers ==
+
==Newspapers==
  
 
[http://www.cherokeeobserver.org/ ''The Cherokee Observer''] The only independent Cherokee Newspaper. of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma.  
 
[http://www.cherokeeobserver.org/ ''The Cherokee Observer''] The only independent Cherokee Newspaper. of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma.  
Line 611: Line 313:
 
''Annotated Obituaries from the Cherokee Advance'', ''Canton, Georgia, 1880-1938'' by John Carver<br>2003.Over 600 pages.<br>  
 
''Annotated Obituaries from the Cherokee Advance'', ''Canton, Georgia, 1880-1938'' by John Carver<br>2003.Over 600 pages.<br>  
  
== School Records ==
+
==School Records==
  
*Saline District, Cherokee Nation, School Records 1900 {{FHL|989202|disp=Film: 989202}} item 6  
+
*Saline District, Cherokee Nation, School Records 1900 {{FHL|989202|disp=Film: 989202}} item 6
*Delaware District, Cherokee Nation. Beatties Prairie School {{FHL|989203|disp=Film: 989203}} item 1  
+
*Delaware District, Cherokee Nation. Beatties Prairie School {{FHL|989203|disp=Film: 989203}} item 1
*Cherokee National Seminary, Male and Female Seminary Records, 1881-1882. {{FHL|1025299|disp=Film: 1025299}} item 1  
+
*Cherokee National Seminary, Male and Female Seminary Records, 1881-1882. {{FHL|1025299|disp=Film: 1025299}} item 1
*Cherokee National Female Seminary 1876-1909. {{FHL|989203|disp=Film: 989203}} items 3, 6  
+
*Cherokee National Female Seminary 1876-1909. {{FHL|989203|disp=Film: 989203}} items 3, 6
*Cherokee National Male Seminary 1876-1909. {{FHL|989202|disp=Film: 989202}} item 5 and {{FHL|Film: 989203}} item 5  
+
*Cherokee National Male Seminary 1876-1909. {{FHL|989202|disp=Film: 989202}} item 5
*Arcadia School Records, 190. Saline District, Cherokee Nation {{FHL|989202|disp=FHL Film: 989202}} item 6  
+
*Arcadia School Records, 190. Saline District, Cherokee Nation {{FHL|989202|disp=FHL Film: 989202}} item 6
*T. L. Ballenger. Early History of Northeastern State College {{FHL|989203|disp=FHL Film 989203}}  
+
*T. L. Ballenger. Early History of Northeastern State College {{FHL|989203|disp=FHL Film 989203}}
*Beatties Prairie School, Registers of Pupils, 1876-1881. Delaware Cherokee Nation {{FHL|989203|disp=FHL Film 989203}}  
+
*Beatties Prairie School, Registers of Pupils, 1876-1881. Delaware Cherokee Nation {{FHL|989203|disp=FHL Film 989203}}
 
*Cherokee Agency (East) U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, School Records, 1907-1948 {{FHL|110544|item|disp=FHL film 1249958}} first of two films
 
*Cherokee Agency (East) U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, School Records, 1907-1948 {{FHL|110544|item|disp=FHL film 1249958}} first of two films
  
== Correspondence ==
+
==Correspondence==
  
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | '''Tribe'''  
+
! scope="col" |'''Tribe'''
! scope="col" | '''Agency'''  
+
! scope="col" |'''Agency'''
! scope="col" | '''Location of Original Records'''  
+
! scope="col" |'''Location of Original Records'''
! scope="col" |  
+
! scope="col" |
 
'''Pre-1880 Correspondence M234'''  
 
'''Pre-1880 Correspondence M234'''  
  
Line 637: Line 339:
 
'''Roll Number'''  
 
'''Roll Number'''  
  
! scope="col" | '''FHL Film Number'''
+
! scope="col" |'''FHL Film Number'''
 
|-
 
|-
| Cherokee  
+
|Cherokee
|  
+
|
 
Cherokee Agency,  
 
Cherokee Agency,  
  
 
1824-80  
 
1824-80  
  
| Washington D.C.  
+
|Washington D.C.
| Rolls 71-118  
+
|Rolls 71-118
| 1,660,801 - 848
+
|1,660,801 - 848
 
|-
 
|-
| Cherokee  
+
|Cherokee
| [[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]], 1875-1914  
+
|[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]], 1875-1914
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
+
|Washington D.C. and Fort Worth
| Rolls 865-77  
+
|Rolls 865-77
| 1,661,595 - 607
+
|1,661,595 - 607
 
|-
 
|-
| Cherokee  
+
|Cherokee
| [[Five Civilized Tribes Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Five Civilized Tribes Agency]] Muskogee, 1914-60  
+
|[[Five Civilized Tribes Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Five Civilized Tribes Agency]] Muskogee, 1914-60
| Fort Worth  
+
|Fort Worth
| -  
+
| -
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| Cherokee, North Carolina  
+
|Cherokee, North Carolina
| Cherokee Indian Agency, 1886-1952  
+
|Cherokee Indian Agency, 1886-1952
| Atlanta  
+
|Atlanta
| -  
+
| -
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| Cherokee Eastern  
+
|Cherokee Eastern
| Cherokee Indian Agency, 1886-1952  
+
|Cherokee Indian Agency, 1886-1952
| Atlanta  
+
|Atlanta
| '''-'''  
+
|'''-'''
| '''-'''
+
|'''-'''
 
|}
 
|}
  
== Treaties ==
+
==Treaties==
  
 
The year link (year of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.  
 
The year link (year of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.  
  
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].  
+
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual native tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, [[American Indian Treaties with the United States|click here]].  
  
 
Treaties to which the Cherokee Indians were a part were:  
 
Treaties to which the Cherokee Indians were a part were:  
  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0008.htm '''1785'''] November 28, at Hopewell.  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0008.htm '''1785'''] November 28, at Hopewell.
*November 28, 1785, referred to
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0029.htm '''1791'''] July 2, on Holston River
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0029.htm '''1791''']July 2, on Holston River  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0033.htm '''1794'''] June 26, at Philadelphia
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0033.htm '''1794'''] June 26, at Philadelphia  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0051.htm '''1798'''] October 2, at Tellico
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0051.htm '''1798'''] October 2, at Tellico  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0073.htm '''1804'''] October 24,at Tellico
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0073.htm '''1804'''] October 24,at Tellico  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0082.htm '''1805'''] October 25, at Tellico
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0082.htm '''1805'''] October 25, at Tellico  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0084.htm '''1805'''] October 27, at Tellico
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0084.htm '''1805'''] October 27, at Tellico  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0090.htm '''1806'''] '''January 7, at Washington'''
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0090.htm '''1806''']'''January 7, at Washington'''  
+
*September 11, 1807,
*September 11, 1807,  
+
*August 9, 1814, referred to
*August 9, 1814, referred to  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0124.htm '''1816'''] March 22, at Washington
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0124.htm '''1816'''] March 22, at Washington  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0133.htm '''1816'''] September 14, at Chickasaw Council House
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0133.htm '''1816'''] September 14, at Chickasaw Council House  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0140.htm '''1817'''] July 8, at Cherokee Agency
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0140.htm '''1817'''] July 8, at Cherokee Agency  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0177.htm '''1819'''] February 27, at Washington
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0177.htm '''1819'''] February 27, at Washington  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0288.htm '''1828'''] May 6, at Washington, Western Cherokee
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0288.htm '''1828'''] May 6, at Washington, Western Cherokee  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0385.htm '''1833'''] February 14, at Fort Gibson
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0385.htm '''1833'''] February 14, at Fort Gibson  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che1041.htm '''1835'''] March 14, unratified
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che1041.htm '''1835'''] March 14, unratified  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0435.htm '''1835'''] August 24, at Camp Holmes
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0435.htm '''1835'''] August 24, at Camp Holmes  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0439.htm '''1835'''] December 29, at New Echota
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0439.htm '''1835'''] December 29, at New Echota  
+
*March 1, 1836, supplementary
*March 1, 1836, supplementary  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0561.htm '''1846'''] August 6, at Washington, with Western Cherokee
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0561.htm '''1846'''] August 6, at Washington, with Western Cherokee  
+
*September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified
*September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0942.htm '''1866'''] July 19, at Washington
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0942.htm '''1866'''] July 19, at Washington  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0996.htm '''1868'''] April 27, Western Band Treaties
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0996.htm '''1868'''] April 27,Western Band Treaties  
+
*May 6, 1828, at Washington
*May 6, 1828, at Washington  
+
*February 14, 1833
*February 14, 1833,
 
  
== Vital Records ==
+
==Vital Records==
  
Prior to the I[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Reorganization_Act ndian Reorganization Act], the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record of]] Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "[[American Indian Census Rolls|Indian Census Rolls]]." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
+
Prior to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Reorganization_Act Indian Reorganization Act], the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "[[American Indian Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc.|Sanitary Record of]] Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "[[American Indian Census Rolls|Indian Census Rolls]]." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
  
Some vital records for the Cherokee Indians include:  
+
Some vital records for the Cherokee Nation include:  
  
*Cherokee Agency, M 595, births and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL|Film: 573871 }}1926-1939, {{FHL|Film: 573872}}<br>
+
*Cherokee Agency, M 595, births and deaths 1924-1932, [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&query=%2Bfilm_number%3A573871 1926-1939], [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&query=%2Bfilm_number%3A573872 FHL Film: 573872]<br>
  
 
*Marriage Records for the Cherokee Indian in Delaware District, 1867-1898 Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. {{FHL|779081|item|disp= FHL film 1666325 item 1 }}first of four films
 
*Marriage Records for the Cherokee Indian in Delaware District, 1867-1898 Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. {{FHL|779081|item|disp= FHL film 1666325 item 1 }}first of four films
Line 734: Line 435:
 
*Marriage records for Tahlelquah District in the Cherokee Nation, 1892-1897. Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division. {{FHL|785224|item|dips= FHL film 1666341 item 12}}
 
*Marriage records for Tahlelquah District in the Cherokee Nation, 1892-1897. Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division. {{FHL|785224|item|dips= FHL film 1666341 item 12}}
  
== Indian Pioneer Papers ==
+
==Indian Pioneer Papers==
  
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here." <ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Cherokee, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Some of the surnames from the Cherokee tribe found in the collection are: Adair (Rider), Anderson, Beaver, Brewer, Bohanan, Burch (Choate), Campbell, Candy, Chambers (Ketcher), Coodey, Crutchfield (Lane), Daniels (Cummins), Daughtery (Morris), Drew, Dugan, Duncan, Harlan (James), Keys (Porter), Ketcher (Langley), Langley, Lynch, Marcham, McClure (Keith), Miller (Watts), Morris, Phillips (Keith), Rider (Howland), Ross, Rutherford (Rider), Starr, Vann, West (Spring). Family History Library microfiche number: 6,016,865 (first fiche number)<br>  
+
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here." <ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OKGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Native Americans interviewed, including the Cherokee, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Some of the surnames from the Cherokee tribe found in the collection are: Adair (Rider), Anderson, Beaver, Brewer, Bohanan, Burch (Choate), Campbell, Candy, Chambers (Ketcher), Coodey, Crutchfield (Lane), Daniels (Cummins), Daughtery (Morris), Drew, Dugan, Duncan, Harlan (James), Keys (Porter), Ketcher (Langley), Langley, Lynch, Marcham, McClure (Keith), Miller (Watts), Morris, Phillips (Keith), Rider (Howland), Ross, Rutherford (Rider), Starr, Vann, West (Spring). Family History Library microfiche number: 6,016,865 (first fiche number)<br>  
  
=== Family History Library ===
+
===Family History Library===
  
The FamilySearch Catalog has over 1670 records of interest to the [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Cherokee&prekeyword=Cherokee Cherokee Indians]  
+
The FamilySearch Catalog has over 1670 records of interest to the [https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&query=%2Bsubject%3ACherokee%20%2Bsubject%3AIndians Cherokee Indians]  
  
The following is a Family History Library book which is a ebooks and may be downloaded.  
+
The following is a Family History Library book which is an ebook and may be downloaded.  
  
Title: ''Martha Jane (Thornton) Williams (1842-1918), Indian History and Genealogy''.<br> Author: Williams, Donna Jeanne Mefferd&lt;br&gt;
+
[https://familysearch.org/search/catalog/365633 ''Martha Jane (Thornton) Williams (1842-1918), Indian History and Genealogy''].
  
<br> Description: Robert Williams (1819-1892), the son of Jack Williams, married Martha Jane Thornton (1842-1918), who was 3/4ths Cherokee. Their son, Lee Williams (3/8th Cherokee), married Maude L. Adair (5/64th Cherokee). Her grandparents came over the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory. She was a direct descendant in the sixth generation of James Adair (b.1709), who immigrated from Scotland to the English colonies, and was a trader among the Cherokee and Chickasaw tribes for forty years. Includes other ancestors and relatives before the Trail of Tears, as well as descendants and relatives in Oklahoma and elsewhere.<br> Language: English;English;English<br> Provenance: Owning Institution:Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch; http://www.familysearch.org/<br> Patron Usage Instructions: https://www.familysearch.org/terms; Public<br> Title Number: 365633
+
==Websites==
 
 
https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE934297<br><br>
 
 
 
== Websites ==
 
  
 
{{Wikipedia|Cherokee}}  
 
{{Wikipedia|Cherokee}}  
  
*Constitution of the [http://www.cherokee.org/Government/Default.aspx?section=Commissions&Commission=CCC Cherokee Nation]  
+
*Constitution of the [https://www.cherokee.org/our-government/cherokee-nation-constitution/ Cherokee Nation]
*Official Web Site of the [http://www.cherokee.org/ Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma]  
+
*Official Web Site of the [http://www.cherokee.org/ Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma]
*[http://www.allthingscherokee.com/ All Things Cherokee website]-- a largely commercial website with a free message board and some free information about Cherokee research and records'''.'''  
+
*[http://www.allthingscherokee.com/ All Things Cherokee website]-- a largely commercial website with a free message board and some free information about Cherokee research and records'''.'''
*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cherokee/cherohist.htm Cherokee]  
+
*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/cherokee/cherohist.htm Cherokee]
*Cherokee Native Americans [http://cherokeenativeamericans.blogspot.com http://cherokeenativeamericans.blogspot.com]
+
*Cherokee Native Americans http://cherokeenativeamericans.blogspot.com
*[http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~itcherok/genealogy/rolls-census.htm Cherokee Nation Indian Territory Research]
+
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20170714171241/http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~itcherok/genealogy/rolls-census.htm Cherokee Nation Indian Territory Research]
  
== For Further Reading ==
+
==For Further Reading==
  
For background information to help find American Indian ancestors see [[American Indian For Further Reading|'''For Further Reading''']].  
+
For background information to help find Native American ancestors see [[American Indian For Further Reading|'''For Further Reading''']].  
  
 
'''See also:'''  
 
'''See also:'''  
  
*[[Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll]]  
+
*[[Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll]]
*[[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll]]  
+
*[[The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll]]
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records]]  
+
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records]]
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes]]  
+
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes]]
 
*[[American Indian Enrollment Records]]
 
*[[American Indian Enrollment Records]]
  
== References ==
+
==References==
  
 
{{reflist}}  
 
{{reflist}}  
  
{{American Indian}}  
+
{{Native American nav}}  
  
[[Category:Tennessee_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:South_Carolina_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:North_Carolina_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Oklahoma_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States|Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:FamilySearch_Research_Classes_Online]] [[Category:Georgia_Indian_Tribes]]
+
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of Tennessee]]  
 +
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of South Carolina]]  
 +
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of North Carolina]]  
 +
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of Oklahoma]]  
 +
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of the United States]]  
 +
[[Category:FamilySearch_Research_Classes_Online]]  
 +
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of Georgia (state)]]

Latest revision as of 14:25, 13 October 2020

United States Genealogy Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of the US Arkansas, United States Genealogy Gotoarrow.png Georgia Gotoarrow.png North Carolina Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png South Carolina, United States Genealogy Gotoarrow.png Tennessee, United States Genealogy Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Arkansas Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Georgia Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of North Carolina Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of South Carolina Gotoarrow.png Indigenous Peoples of Tennessee Gotoarrow.png Cherokee Nation

Guide to Cherokee Nation ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.


Cherokee

Cherokees Indians in London.jpg
Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: Alabama to Virginia, northern Georgia, western North Carolina, and southern Tennessee

Descendants:
A large portion of the tribe was removed to Indian Territory in the 1830s. Some remained in North Carolina.

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

Iroquoian

Cultural Group

Southern Appalachian Mountains

Other Related Ethnic Groups

One of what is often called the "Five Civilized Tribes"

Cherokee Tribe is one of the Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole

Leaders: Sequoyah, Elias Boudinot, Nancy Ward

Clans: Wolf (Aniwahya), Wild Potato (Anigatogewi) , Deer (Anikawi), Bird (Ani Tsiskwa), Paint (Aniwodi), Blue (Anisahoni), and Long Hair (Anigilohi)

Bands:

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

Cherokee Nation Tribal Headquarters
P.O. Box 948
Tahlequah, OK 74465
Phone: 1-918-453-5000

Cherokee Heritage Center - Cherokee National Historical Society
21192 S. Keller Drive
Park Hill, OK 74451
Phone: 1-918-456-6007

Mailing Address:

PO Box 515 Tahlequah, OK 74465-0515

History[edit | edit source]

The Spanish explorer De Soto was the first to encounter the Cherokee in the 1540s.

During the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War the tribe supported the British.

By 1820 a group that had tired of the encroachment by settlers migrated to Indian Territory which is now Arkansas.

Sequoya (George Grist) a mixed blood, developed the Cherokee alphabet, helping to make the tribe a literate people.

In the 1830s gold was discovered in their Nation, this became a catalyst for removal. With the signing of the Treaty of New Echota, December 29, 1835 the tribe sold their remaining land and agreed to move west of the Mississippi.

The removal to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) occurred in the winter of 1838-1839, with an 800 mile journey, this became known as the "Trail of Tears", with a loss of one-fourth of their tribe. They joined an earlier group known as "old settlers" who had been in Arkansas. Another group that had been in Mexico (Texas) was forced by government troops to move, they went to the mountains of North Carolina where in 1842, they obtained permission to stay. The Texas group are now a part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

The Cherokee were slave owners, and resided in areas encompassed by southern influence many of them enlisted in the Confederate Army. A Treaty signed in 1866 remitted them to the United States. They were required to release their slaves. Others had joined the Union Army.

In 1870 some Delaware and Shawnee from Kansas were admitted to the tribe.

There are three band of Cherokee recognized by the Federal government; Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band of Cherokee, and United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

  • 1689-1763: French and Indian War, the Cherokee supported the English
  • 1710-1715 The Cherokee and Chickasaw were allies with the British and fought the Shawnee who were alies with the French
  • 1721: The Governor of the Carolinas signed the Cherokee Treaty. This was one of the first concession of land.
  • 1736: Jesuit Mission was founded
  • 1738-1750: Smallpox epidemics
  • 1775-83: During Revolutionary War supported the British
  • 1800: "Moravian," Protestant missionaries of German origin, established the first mission at Spring Place.
  • 1801-1823: An Indian agent, Return J. Meigs, lived among the Cherokee.
  • 1805-1833: The State of Georgia holds eight lotteries to distribute land seized from the Cherokee and Creeks
  • 1806: a Federal road from Savannah, Georgia to Knoxville, Tennessee was built through Cherokee land.
  • 1816: Lovely's Purchase. Osage agreed to cede land in Arkansas to the United States for the Cherokee people.
  • 1817: "Treaty of Turkeytown" finalized the exchange for land in Arkansas. The "Old Settlers" begin their migration.
  • 1819-1821: Sequoyah (George Gist) created the Cherokee alphabet.
  • 1827: Tribal leaders recorded their constitution
  • 1828: Georgia held a lottery for Cherokee lands.
  • 1828: Cherokee Phoenix, a bilingual newspaper, contained columns in both English and Cherokee. Editor -- Elias Boudinot
  • December 1835: Treaty of New Echota, traded Cherokee lands in the southeast for land in Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
  • 1838: First Group; Start of Trail of Tears, 800-mile journey; 1838-39 - Second group; 4,000 Cherokees died
  • Cherokee Nation created and divided into the following districts or counties: Canadian, Cooweescoowee, Delaware, Going Snake, Flint, Illinois, Saline, Sequoyah and Tahlequah
  • 1851: Drennen Roll, Is a roll of the Cherokee Emigrants who were forced to remove from the Cherokee Nation and the Old Settlers who moved voluntarily before the forced removal. 
  • 1861: Beginning of the Civil War. A treaty was signed between the Cherokee Nation and the Confederate government.
  • 1861-1865: Civil War Some Cherokee fought with the Confederate and others with the Union
  • 1865:Eastern Band lost many to a smallpox epidemic
  • 1866: July 19, Treaty provided for the cession of the Cherokee "neutral lands" in Kansas. Native Americans living on the land could receive a patent to 320 acres but stipulated that they would no longer be members of the Cherokee nation. The treaty also gave emancipation to all the Cherokee slaves. and citizenship to the Cherokee freedmen.
  • 1880: Cherokee Nation Census FHL film 989204
  • 1887: General Allotment Act passed. This act required individual ownership of lands once held in common by the Cherokee people.
  • 1889: Unassigned lands in Indian Territory were opened to white settlers. (Oklahoma Land Rush)
  • 1893: Cherokee Outlet was opened for white settlers.
  • 1898: The Curtis Act dismantled tribal governments.
  • 1906: A final agreement was reached between the federal government and the Cherokee people. The Dawes Commission (all Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cree and Seminole) created the enrollment records.
  • 1907: Oklahoma became the 46th State.
  • Cherokee Nation divided into ten counties: Adair, Cherokee, Craig, Delaware, Maynes, Nowata, Rogers, Sequoyah, Tulsa, and Washington
  • 1909: Guion Miller Rolls, Cherokee only, who applied for a share of the money from a law suit settlement against the United States
  • 1953: U.S. Congress began a new policy of termination for the Native American tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all native-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban relocation program. Native Americans could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many indigenous people relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle. It is estimated that 750,000 Native Americans migrated to the cities between 1950-1980.
  • 1968: Indian Civil Rights Act restored the right to hold popular elections.

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands

  • Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Cherokee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
  • Benjamin Greenleaf. Cherokee Almanac. 1860. FHL Film 989199 item 3
  • Fredrea Marilyn Hermann Cook. Forgotten Oklahoma Records. Cullman, Alabama: Gregath Co., 1981. FHL Book 970.3 C424co

Jurisdictions[edit | edit source]

The Cherokee Tribe was under the following jurisdictions:[edit | edit source]

Agencies[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters. They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Reservations[edit | edit source]

  • Qualla Reservation for Eastern Cherokees, in Swain and Jackson counties, North Carolina
  • Cheowah Reservation in Graham county, North Carolina

Superintendency[edit | edit source]

Records[edit | edit source]

Cherokee Nation. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives (Vital, Land and Property, Court, Probate, and School records) FHL film 1666294 first of 129 films

Agency Records[edit | edit source]

Agency Records 1898-1950 (East) Cherokee Agency. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. FHL film 1249974 first film of 7

Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee, 1801-1835. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (M0208) FHL 1024418 first of 14 films

Allotment Records[edit | edit source]

  • Five Civilized Indian Tribes Land Allotment Records, 1899-1907, (NARA RG 75) Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. On Line. FHL film 4124879 first film
  • Forgotten Oklahoma Records ( Allotment) by Fredrea Marilyn Hermann Cook. 1981. Film: 1035512 item 4 or FHL Book: 970.3 C424co
  • Township Plats, Cherokee Nation. Tahlequah, Oklahoma. FHL Film: 989209

Annuity Records[edit | edit source]

Annuity Records, 1905-1910 FHL film 1030883

Census Records[edit | edit source]

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census rolls on many of the reservations from 1885-1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records click here.


Tribe Agency Location of Original records

Post - 1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Cherokee

North Carolina

Cherokee Indian Agency,

1886-1952

Atlanta Roll 22 FHL Films: 573,868-573,872
- 1898-1914 - - FHL Film:573,868


Additional Census Records Available through the Family History Library

  • Mullary Roll 1848, Siler Roll 1851, 1852, Chapman Roll 1852, Swetland Roll 1869 and Hester Roll 1883 Film: 847743 Item 2
  • Revised Roll 1924-1970 Films: 847746-847748
  • Historical Roll 1908, Churchill Roll 1908, Baker Roll 1924, Miller Roll 1909, Baker-revised Roll 1967 Film: 847749
  • The Cherokee Phoenix, 1828-1835. Film: 825726
  • Cherokee Advocate, October 1844-September 1846, Film: 989202 item 7
  • Cherokee One Feather, 1969-1973.
  • Probate Records 1892-1908, Northern District Cherokee Nation by Orpha Jewell Wever Book: 976.6 P2w

Church Records[edit | edit source]

  • 1817 - 1861 The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
  • 1803 Moravian Missions
  • 1817 Baptist Missions and Missionaries
  • 1822 Methodist Missions

See: Moravian Church Records

Crews, C. Daniel and Richard W. Starbuck. Records of the Moravians Among the Cherokees. Early Contact and the Establishment of the First Mission 1752-1802. Cherokee National Press. Tahlequah, OK FHL book 970.3 C424cdm Vol. C. 2010. WorldCat

Crews, Daniel C. and Richard W. Starbuck. With Courage for the Future: The Story of the Moravian Church Southern Province Winston-Salem: Moravian Church in America, Southern Province, 2002. FHL 973 K3cw WorldCat

McLoughlin. William G. Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.FHL 970.3 mw WorldCat

Mc Clinton, Rowena. The Moravian Springplace Mission to the Cherokees Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.  FHL 970.1 C424gir WorldCat

Starr, Emmet. Early History of the Cherokees  Embracing Aboriginal Customs, Religion, Laws, Fork Lore and Civilization. 1917. FHL 970.3 C424sea WorldCat

Citizenship[edit | edit source]

Enrollment Records[edit | edit source]

Find out if you are a Cherokee by having your ancestor's name checked to the 1924 Baker Roll.

Only the Names Remain. by Sandi Garrett FHL book 970.3 C424gs Vol 1-6

Removal[edit | edit source]

The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of Native Americans tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.

The above collection is also available online:
  • The Oklahoma Historical Society site and research center has excellent information on Indian Removal, Census, Freedman Resources, Tribes in Oklahoma, Timelines for the removal of the Cherokee tribe and more.
  • 1835 Trail of Tears
  • Cherokee Removal: The Journal of Rev. Daniel S. Butrick. by Trail of Tears Association. FHL book 970.3 Cv424bds
  • Library and Archives of Thomas Gilcrease - Institute of American History in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Newspapers[edit | edit source]

The Cherokee Observer The only independent Cherokee Newspaper. of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma.

The Cherokee Phoenix is a tribal media organization.

Annotated Obituaries from the Cherokee Advance, Canton, Georgia, 1880-1938 by John Carver
2003.Over 600 pages.

School Records[edit | edit source]

  • Saline District, Cherokee Nation, School Records 1900 Film: 989202 item 6
  • Delaware District, Cherokee Nation. Beatties Prairie School Film: 989203 item 1
  • Cherokee National Seminary, Male and Female Seminary Records, 1881-1882. Film: 1025299 item 1
  • Cherokee National Female Seminary 1876-1909. Film: 989203 items 3, 6
  • Cherokee National Male Seminary 1876-1909. Film: 989202 item 5
  • Arcadia School Records, 190. Saline District, Cherokee Nation FHL Film: 989202 item 6
  • T. L. Ballenger. Early History of Northeastern State College FHL Film 989203
  • Beatties Prairie School, Registers of Pupils, 1876-1881. Delaware Cherokee Nation FHL Film 989203
  • Cherokee Agency (East) U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, School Records, 1907-1948 FHL film 1249958 first of two films

Correspondence[edit | edit source]

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234

RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL Film Number
Cherokee

Cherokee Agency,

1824-80

Washington D.C. Rolls 71-118 1,660,801 - 848
Cherokee Union Agency, 1875-1914 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 865-77 1,661,595 - 607
Cherokee Five Civilized Tribes Agency Muskogee, 1914-60 Fort Worth - -
Cherokee, North Carolina Cherokee Indian Agency, 1886-1952 Atlanta - -
Cherokee Eastern Cherokee Indian Agency, 1886-1952 Atlanta - -

Treaties[edit | edit source]

The year link (year of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual native tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties to which the Cherokee Indians were a part were:

  • 1785 November 28, at Hopewell.
  • 1791 July 2, on Holston River
  • 1794 June 26, at Philadelphia
  • 1798 October 2, at Tellico
  • 1804 October 24,at Tellico
  • 1805 October 25, at Tellico
  • 1805 October 27, at Tellico
  • 1806 January 7, at Washington
  • September 11, 1807,
  • August 9, 1814, referred to
  • 1816 March 22, at Washington
  • 1816 September 14, at Chickasaw Council House
  • 1817 July 8, at Cherokee Agency
  • 1819 February 27, at Washington
  • 1828 May 6, at Washington, Western Cherokee
  • 1833 February 14, at Fort Gibson
  • 1835 March 14, unratified
  • 1835 August 24, at Camp Holmes
  • 1835 December 29, at New Echota
  • March 1, 1836, supplementary
  • 1846 August 6, at Washington, with Western Cherokee
  • September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified
  • 1866 July 19, at Washington
  • 1868 April 27, Western Band Treaties
  • May 6, 1828, at Washington
  • February 14, 1833

Vital Records[edit | edit source]

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Cherokee Nation include:

  • Marriage Records for the Cherokee Indian in Delaware District, 1867-1898 Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. FHL film 1666325 item 1first of four films
  • Marriage records for Cooweescoowee District, 1867-1898. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division FHL film 1666317
  • Marriage Records for the Saline District of the Cherokee Nation, 1868-1894. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. FHL film 1666337 Item 1 and 2
  • Marriage licenses and marks and brands for Sequoyah District in the Cherokee District, 1874-1898 FHL film 1666339
  • Marriage records for Tahlelquah District in the Cherokee Nation, 1892-1897. Oklahoma Historical Society, Indian Archives Division. FHL Collection

Indian Pioneer Papers[edit | edit source]

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here." [1] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [2] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OKGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Native Americans interviewed, including the Cherokee, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Some of the surnames from the Cherokee tribe found in the collection are: Adair (Rider), Anderson, Beaver, Brewer, Bohanan, Burch (Choate), Campbell, Candy, Chambers (Ketcher), Coodey, Crutchfield (Lane), Daniels (Cummins), Daughtery (Morris), Drew, Dugan, Duncan, Harlan (James), Keys (Porter), Ketcher (Langley), Langley, Lynch, Marcham, McClure (Keith), Miller (Watts), Morris, Phillips (Keith), Rider (Howland), Ross, Rutherford (Rider), Starr, Vann, West (Spring). Family History Library microfiche number: 6,016,865 (first fiche number)

Family History Library[edit | edit source]

The FamilySearch Catalog has over 1670 records of interest to the Cherokee Indians

The following is a Family History Library book which is an ebook and may be downloaded.

Martha Jane (Thornton) Williams (1842-1918), Indian History and Genealogy.

Websites[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Cherokee

For Further Reading[edit | edit source]

For background information to help find Native American ancestors see For Further Reading.

See also:

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  2. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/