Difference between revisions of "African American Genealogy"

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|[[Image:TN Valley Authority African American worker.jpg|thumb|right|320px|<center>A Tennesee Valley Authority African American worker</center>]]
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[[Image:TN Valley Authority African American worker.jpg|thumb|right|300px|<center>A Tennesee Valley Authority African American worker</center>]]
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'''''Its most unique genealogical features:'''''  
 
'''''Its most unique genealogical features:'''''  
 
 
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records#Making_the_Slave_Connection|Family name changes]] were common after the Civil War  
 
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records#Making_the_Slave_Connection|Family name changes]] were common after the Civil War  
 
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records#Searching_Records_for_Slaves|Slavery research]] is usually challenging  
 
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records#Searching_Records_for_Slaves|Slavery research]] is usually challenging  
Line 30: Line 24:
 
*Join the [[Join a Facebook Research Community|Facebook]] African American Genealogy Research Community.
 
*Join the [[Join a Facebook Research Community|Facebook]] African American Genealogy Research Community.
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<div id="fsButtons"><span class="online_records_button">[[African American Online Genealogy Records]]</span></div>
 +
<br><br>
  
{{Click|Image:AA_ORP.png|African_American_Online_Genealogy_Records}}
+
== State African American Pages ==
  
=== State African American Pages ===
+
{|
 +
|-
 +
<ul class="column-spacing-halfscreen" style="padding-right:5px; width:600px;">
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Alabama|Alabama]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Alaska|Alaska]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Arkansas|Arkansas]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Arizona|Arizona]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for California|California]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Colorado|Colorado]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Connecticut|Connecticut]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Delaware|Delaware]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for District of Columbia|District of Columbia]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Florida|Florida]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Georgia|Georgia]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Hawaii|Hawaii]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Idaho|Idaho]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Illinois|Illinois]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Indiana|Indiana]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Iowa|Iowa]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Kansas|Kansas]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Kentucky|Kentucky]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Louisiana|Louisiana]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Maine|Maine]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Maryland|Maryland]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Michigan|Michigan]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Minnesota|Minnesota]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Mississippi|Mississippi]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Missouri|Missouri]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Montana|Montana]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Nebraska|Nebraska]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Nevada|Nevada]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for New Hampshire|New Hampshire]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for New Jersey|New Jersey]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for New Mexico|New Mexico]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for New York|New York]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for North Carolina|North Carolina]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for North Dakota|North Dakota]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Ohio|Ohio]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Oklahoma|Oklahoma]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Oregon|Oregon]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Rhode Island |Rhode Island ]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for South Carolina|South Carolina]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for South Dakota |South Dakota ]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Tennessee|Tennessee]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Texas|Texas]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Utah|Utah]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Vermont|Vermont]]</li> 
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Virginia|Virginia]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Washington|Washington]]</li>  
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for West Virginia|West Virginia]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Wisconsin|Wisconsin]]</li>
 +
  <li>[[African American Resources for Wyoming|Wyoming]]</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
|}
 +
<br>
 +
*[https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/African_American_Digital_Bookshelf African American Digital Bookshelf]
  
{| width="66%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Southern_States_Slavery_and_Bondage_Collections Southern States Slavery and Bondage Collections from the FamilySearch Catalog.]
|-
 
|
 
*[[African American Resources for Alabama|Alabama]]
 
*[[African American Resources for Alaska|Alaska]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Arkansas|Arkansas]]
 
*[[Arizona African Americans|Arizona]]
 
*[[African American Resources for California|California]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Colorado|Colorado]]
 
*[[Connecticut Ethnic Groups|Connecticut]]
 
*[[Delaware Slavery and Bondage|Delaware]]
 
*[[District of Columbia African Americans|District of Columbia]]
 
*[[Florida African Americans|Florida]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Georgia|Georgia]]
 
*Hawaii
 
*Idaho
 
*[[African-American Resources for Illinois|Illinois]]
 
*[[Indiana Minorities|Indiana]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Iowa|Iowa]]
 
*Kansas
 
  
|
+
*[https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/North_Carolina_Slavery_and_Bondage_Collection North Carolina Slavery and Bondage Collections from the FamilySearch Catalog]
*[[Kentucky Minorities|Kentucky]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Louisiana|Louisiana]]
 
*Maine
 
*[[Maryland Minorities|Maryland]]
 
*Massachusetts
 
*[[African-American Resources for Michigan|Michigan]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Minnesota|Minnesota]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Mississippi|Mississippi]]
 
*[[African-American Resources for Missouri|Missouri]]
 
*Montana
 
*[[Nebraska Minorities|Nebraska]]
 
*[[Nevada African Americans|Nevada]]
 
*New Hampshire
 
*[[African-American Resources for New Jersey|New Jersey]]
 
*New Mexico
 
*[[African American Resources for New York|New York]]<br>
 
*[[North Carolina Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups|North Carolina]]
 
  
|
+
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/723107 State Slavery Statutes. 354 microfiche. Bethesda, Maryland:University Publications of America, 1989. FHL fiche 6118902-6118916.]
*North Dakota
 
*[[Ohio Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups|Ohio]]
 
*[[African American Resources for Oklahoma|Oklahoma]]
 
*Oregon
 
*[[Pennsylvania Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups|Pennsylvania]]
 
*Rhode Island
 
*[[South Carolina African Americans|South Carolina]]
 
*South Dakota
 
*[[African-American Resources for Tennessee|Tennessee]]
 
*[[African American Resources for Texas|Texas]]
 
*[[Utah Minorities|Utah]]
 
*Vermont
 
*[[Virginia African Americans|Virginia]]
 
*Washington
 
*[[African-American Resources for West Virginia|West Virginia]]
 
*[[Wisconsin Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups|Wisconsin]]
 
*[[Wyoming Ethnic, Political, or Religious Groups|Wyoming]]
 
  
|}
+
== National Archives ==
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/slavery-records-civil.html American Slavery, Civil Records.]
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/slavery-records-congress.html American Slavery, Congressional Records]
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/slavery-records-military.html American Slavery, Military Records.]
 +
*[https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/slavery-records-judicial.html American Slavery, Judicial Records]
  
==== How to do African American Genealogy Research  ====
+
== How to do African American Genealogy Research  ==
  
 
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records|Quick Guide to African American Records]]  
 
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records|Quick Guide to African American Records]]  
1870-Present] in the FamilySearch Learning Center.
+
*Search for resources in the [https://www.familysearch.org/ask/landing?search=Getting%20Started&show=lessons&message=true FamilySearch Learning Center]
 
*[[Researching African American Genealogy|How to start African American Research]]  
 
*[[Researching African American Genealogy|How to start African American Research]]  
*[https://familysearch.org/african-american-genealogy FamilySearch African American Genealogy page]
 
 
*[[African American Online Genealogy Records|African American Online Genealogy Records]]
 
*[[African American Online Genealogy Records|African American Online Genealogy Records]]
  
=== Did you know?  ===
+
== Did you know?  ==
  
 
[[Image:Largest ancestry map.png|thumb|left|250px|<center>Deep purple shows counties with an African American plurality</center>]]<br>
 
[[Image:Largest ancestry map.png|thumb|left|250px|<center>Deep purple shows counties with an African American plurality</center>]]<br>
  
*The first African settlers in the U.S. were indentured servants in Jamestown, Va., in 1619 (before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock) and freed after 7 years.  
+
*The '''[https://historicjamestowne.org/history/the-first-africans/ first Africans]''' in the U.S. were indentured servants in Jamestown, Va., in 1619 (before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock) and freed after 7 years.  
 
*African American is the most common ancestry in: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.  
 
*African American is the most common ancestry in: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.  
 
*The Freedman's Bank and the Freedmen's Bureau were separate organizations, from different federal departments, in separate National Archives record groups.  
 
*The Freedman's Bank and the Freedmen's Bureau were separate organizations, from different federal departments, in separate National Archives record groups.  
Line 114: Line 117:
 
*Only 15 percent of freed slaves used the family name of a former owner.  
 
*Only 15 percent of freed slaves used the family name of a former owner.  
 
*From 1865 to 1875 many African Americans changed their family name.  
 
*From 1865 to 1875 many African Americans changed their family name.  
*Over 3,600 Free African Americans owned slaves in 1830. <ref> Not Quite Fre The Free Negro Before the Civil War by Lowell H. Harrison. American History Illustrated FHL 973 B2ahi vol.9 June 1974 pg 12.</ref><br><br><br>
+
*Over 3,600 Free African Americans owned slaves in 1830. <ref> Not Quite Free The Free Negro Before the Civil War by Lowell H. Harrison. American History Illustrated FHL 973 B2ahi vol.9 June 1974 pg 12.</ref><br><br><br>
  
 
+
== Keys to success in African American research  ==
{| style="width:66%;"
 
|-
 
|
 
| style="vertical-align:top" |
 
{| cellpadding="5" border="1" style="background-color:#CCFFFF"
 
|-
 
| valign="bottom" align="center" | '''''Help Index Freedmen's Bureau Records'''''
 
|-
 
|
 
Help yourself and others find their African American ancestors by participating in the [http://www.discoverfreedmen.org/ Discover Freedmen Indexing Project]. [http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865631024/LDS-Church-FamilySearch-launch-project-to-index-Freedmen7s-Bureau-records-of-4-million-former.html?pg=all June 19th Press Conference]
 
|}
 
|}
 
=== Keys to success in African American research  ===
 
  
 
You will find the most success researching African American ancestors if you begin with yourself, and follow oral history as well as historical records such as birth, marriage, and death certificates to document the previous generations.  
 
You will find the most success researching African American ancestors if you begin with yourself, and follow oral history as well as historical records such as birth, marriage, and death certificates to document the previous generations.  
Line 135: Line 125:
 
Use the US Census to research your family groups. Many times, you may have difficulty in documenting an ancestor.If you research the collateral lines (aunts, uncles, siblings, and cousins), you will discover more about your common ancestor and have a wealth of resources to explore.[[United States Basic Search Strategies|See United States Basic Search Strategies.]]<br>  
 
Use the US Census to research your family groups. Many times, you may have difficulty in documenting an ancestor.If you research the collateral lines (aunts, uncles, siblings, and cousins), you will discover more about your common ancestor and have a wealth of resources to explore.[[United States Basic Search Strategies|See United States Basic Search Strategies.]]<br>  
  
In the beginning, you may use the same type of genealogical records other groups use to identify ancestors.&nbsp;;For this reason there is no need to duplicate state resources here. Consult the state and county articles on the FamilySearch Wiki first until you exhaust them. See [http://files.lib.byu.edu/family-history-library/research-outlines/US/AfricanAmerican.pdf Finding Records for Your Ancestors, Part A-African American 1870 to Present]. You will find records become somewhat scarce as you move back in time.<br>  
+
In the beginning, you may use the same type of genealogical records other groups use to identify ancestors.&nbsp; For this reason there is no need to duplicate state resources here. Consult the state and county articles on the FamilySearch Wiki first until you exhaust them. See [http://files.lib.byu.edu/family-history-library/research-outlines/US/AfricanAmerican.pdf Finding Records for Your Ancestors, Part A-African American 1870 to Present]. You will find records become somewhat scarce as you move back in time.<br>  
  
Once you notice you are no longer able to find your ancestors on the records most commonly used by others, return here and choose the state above where your ancestor lived to discover records not commonly used in genealogy research. &nbsp;  
+
Once you notice you are no longer able to find your ancestors on the records most commonly used by others, return here and choose the state above where your ancestor lived to discover records not commonly used in genealogy research. &nbsp;
  
=== Key Internet Links  ===
+
== Key Internet Links  ==
  
{| width="66%" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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{| style="width:60%; vertical-align:top;"
|-
+
|-  
| valign="top" |  
+
|style="width:16%; vertical-align:top;"|
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records|African American Quick Guide]]  
+
*[http://www.discoverfreedmen.org/ DiscoverFreedmen]
*[https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/images/e/e8/36367_African_American_Records.pdf Finding African Americans 1870-Present]
+
*[https://www.familysearch.org/help/helpcenter/lessons/finding-helpful-resources-post-1865 Finding Helpful Resources, Post-1865]  
*[[United States Census Population Schedules, 1870 United States|1870 United States Census]]  
 
 
*[http://library.uncg.edu/slavery/ Digital Library on American Slavery]  
 
*[http://library.uncg.edu/slavery/ Digital Library on American Slavery]  
*{{FSbook|60362}}
+
*[https://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=61568 U.S., Freedmen's Bureau Records of Field Offices, 1863-1878]  
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://hr-search-api:8080/searchapi/search/collection/1417695 Freedman Bank Records 1865-1874] [[United States Freedman's Bank Registers 1865-1874 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
+
*[https://www.legacytree.com/african-american-ancestry LegacyTree: African American Ancestry (hire genealogist)]  
*[https://familysearch.org/s/collection/show#uri=http://search-api:8080/searchapi/search/collection/1414908&hash=Mrd8SMocDIIen2Q83tu%252B82PRagg%253D Freedmen's Bureau Marriages, 1815-1869]
 
*[http://www.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1105 Freedmen's Bureau Field Offices 1865-1872]  
 
*[https://www.legacytree.com/african-american-ancestry Legacy Tree Genealogists]  
 
 
*[https://www.slcl.org/genealogy/search/southern%20claims%20commission Southern Claims Commission]  
 
*[https://www.slcl.org/genealogy/search/southern%20claims%20commission Southern Claims Commission]  
 
*[http://www.inmotionaame.org/home.cfm African-American Migration Experience]  
 
*[http://www.inmotionaame.org/home.cfm African-American Migration Experience]  
 
*[http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/ North American Slave Narratives]<br>  
 
*[http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/ North American Slave Narratives]<br>  
*[http://www.lwfaaf.net/ Resting Places of United States Colored Troops, Officers and Sailors]
 
 
*[http://www.africanamericancemeteries.com/ African American Cemeteries Online]  
 
*[http://www.africanamericancemeteries.com/ African American Cemeteries Online]  
 
*[http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sthtml/sthome.html American Memory - Slaves and the Courts 1740-1860]<br>  
 
*[http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sthtml/sthome.html American Memory - Slaves and the Courts 1740-1860]<br>  
 
*[http://menare.org/ The Menare Foundation]  
 
*[http://menare.org/ The Menare Foundation]  
*[http://slavebiographies.org/project/about/ The Atlantic Slave Database Network: A new Resource for Scholars]
+
*[http://slavebiographies.org/project/about/ The Atlantic Slave Database Network: A New Resource for Scholars]
 
+
|style="width:16%; vertical-align:top;"|
| valign="top" |  
 
 
*[https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/search-soldiers.htm Civil War Soldiers and Sailors]  
 
*[https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/search-soldiers.htm Civil War Soldiers and Sailors]  
*[http://content.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=6482&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 World War I Draft Registration]  
+
*[https://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=6482 U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918]  
*[http://www.unc.edu/iaar/ Institute of African American Research]  
+
*[https://iaar.unc.edu/ Institute of African American Research]  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/ National Archives - African American Heritage]  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/ National Archives - African American Heritage]  
 
*[http://www.afrigeneas.com/ African Ancestored Genealogy]  
 
*[http://www.afrigeneas.com/ African Ancestored Genealogy]  
*[http://www.slavevoyages.org/ Trans-Atlantic Slave Voyages]<br>
+
*[http://www.slavevoyages.org/ Trans-Atlantic Slave Voyages]
*[http://www.genealogycenter.info/africanamerican/ African American Gateway]<br>
+
*[http://www.genealogycenter.info/africanamerican/ African American Gateway]
 
*[http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/ Free African Americans of VA, NC, SC, MD, DE]  
 
*[http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/ Free African Americans of VA, NC, SC, MD, DE]  
 
*[http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/wpa/wpahome.html American Slave Narratives]<br>  
 
*[http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/wpa/wpahome.html American Slave Narratives]<br>  
*[http://www.afrigeneas.com/ AfriGeneas]
+
*[http://africanaheritage.org/ Africana Heritage Project]  
*[http://www.africanaheritage.com/index.asp Africana Heritage Project]  
+
*[http://barbsnow.net/AfricanAmerican.htm Bobbie's Genealogical Classroom guide]
*[http://learn.ancestry.com/LearnMore/VideoRedirection.aspx?content_id=15340 Avoid Traps in African American Genealogy], Tony Burroughs
+
*[http://digitalblackhistory.com/ Digital Black History]<br>
*[http://barbsnow.net/AfricanAmerican.htm Bobbie's Genealogical Classroom guide]<br>
 
 
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
If you are interested in being the [[FamilySearch Wiki:Moderator|moderator]] for these ''African American Research'' pages, {{please contact a Sysop}}.
+
==='''Wiki articles describing online collection are found at:'''===
 
 
'''Wiki articles describing online collection are found at:'''  
 
  
*[[United States Freedman's Bank Registers 1865-1874 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States Freedman's Bank Registers 1865-1874 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]  
+
*[[United States Freedman's Bank Registers 1865-1874 - FamilySearch Historical Records|United States Freedman's Bank Registers 1865-1874 - FamilySearch Historical Records]]  
*[[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Letters (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]  
+
*[[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Letters - FamilySearch Historical Records]]  
*[[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)|United States Freedmen's Bureau Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
+
*[[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Marriages - FamilySearch Historical Records|United States Freedmen's Bureau Marriages - FamilySearch Historical Records]]
  
=== References ===
+
*[[African Americans and the Cholera Epidemic of 1873]]
  
 +
== References ==
 +
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/829837 Dee Parmer Woodtor. '' Finding a Place Called Home. A guide to African-American Genealogical and Historical Identity.'' New York:Random House, 1999. FHL 973 F2wd]
 +
* [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1012177 Tony Burroughs. ''Black roots : a beginners guide to tracing the African American family tree.''New York, New York : Simon & Schuster, 2001. FHL973 D27bt 2001]
 
<references />  
 
<references />  
  
 
{{African American|African American}}{{United States Combo}}__NOTOC__  
 
{{African American|African American}}{{United States Combo}}__NOTOC__  
{{featured article}} 
+
 
 
[[Category:African_American_Records]]
 
[[Category:African_American_Records]]

Revision as of 07:54, 23 September 2020

African American Genealogy Wiki Topics
African American Image 5.jpg
Beginning Research
Original Records
Compiled Sources
Background Information
Finding Aids


A Tennesee Valley Authority African American worker
Welcome to the African American Research page

Its most unique genealogical features:



State African American Pages[edit | edit source]


National Archives[edit | edit source]

How to do African American Genealogy Research[edit | edit source]

Did you know?[edit | edit source]

Deep purple shows counties with an African American plurality


  • The first Africans in the U.S. were indentured servants in Jamestown, Va., in 1619 (before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock) and freed after 7 years.
  • African American is the most common ancestry in: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
  • The Freedman's Bank and the Freedmen's Bureau were separate organizations, from different federal departments, in separate National Archives record groups.
  • Ten percent of the African American population was free before the Civil War.
  • Only 15 percent of freed slaves used the family name of a former owner.
  • From 1865 to 1875 many African Americans changed their family name.
  • Over 3,600 Free African Americans owned slaves in 1830. [1]


Keys to success in African American research[edit | edit source]

You will find the most success researching African American ancestors if you begin with yourself, and follow oral history as well as historical records such as birth, marriage, and death certificates to document the previous generations.

Use the US Census to research your family groups. Many times, you may have difficulty in documenting an ancestor.If you research the collateral lines (aunts, uncles, siblings, and cousins), you will discover more about your common ancestor and have a wealth of resources to explore.See United States Basic Search Strategies.

In the beginning, you may use the same type of genealogical records other groups use to identify ancestors.  For this reason there is no need to duplicate state resources here. Consult the state and county articles on the FamilySearch Wiki first until you exhaust them. See Finding Records for Your Ancestors, Part A-African American 1870 to Present. You will find records become somewhat scarce as you move back in time.

Once you notice you are no longer able to find your ancestors on the records most commonly used by others, return here and choose the state above where your ancestor lived to discover records not commonly used in genealogy research.  

Key Internet Links[edit | edit source]

Wiki articles describing online collection are found at:[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Not Quite Free The Free Negro Before the Civil War by Lowell H. Harrison. American History Illustrated FHL 973 B2ahi vol.9 June 1974 pg 12.