Württemberg Census

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Württemberg,
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Württemberg[edit | edit source]

Deutsche Zollverein and the German Reich (1834-1919)[edit | edit source]

Population statistics before 1816 can be retrieved through church registers. In 1816, the first census took place in Prussia (how many public and private houses. Population was listed according to gender and age, i.e., under 14 years, 14-60 years and over 60 years. Furthermore religion was an important factor, how many were married, how many were enlisted)

When Prussia became part of the Zollverein, further censuses were levied. The Zollverein was a union of German states for easing customs regulations and tariffs so that, for instance, goods travelling from Königsberg to Köln would not have to be inspected 80 times. The idea of custom-free home markets within their territory came from the Rheinbundstaaten. Here are two maps explaining which states belonged to the Rheinbund and the Zollverein.

Years Covered[edit | edit source]

Wuerttemberg:
Membership in the Zollverein:

  • (since 18 January 1828 at the Süddeutsche Zollverein) with the attached states
  • Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (since 28 July 1824),
  • Hohenzollern-Hechingen (since 28 July 1824)
  • Baden (by contract of 12 May 1835).

A part of the Klettgau (including the municipality of Büsingen on the Hochrhein) remained outside the Zollverein customs territory.

Between 1834 and 1867 the Deutsche Zollverein conducted a census every three years:

  • 1834
  • 1837
  • 1840
  • 1843
  • 1846
  • 1849
  • 1852
  • 1855
  • 1861
  • 1864
  • 1867



Censuses were also taken during the years of the German Empire (1871-1918) in:

  • December 1871
  • December 1875
  • December 1880
  • December 1885
  • December 1895
  • December 1900
  • December 1905
  • December 1910
  • December 1915
  • December 1917

Content[edit | edit source]

The format of census taking was more or less underdeveloped. The execution of the census taking was in the hands of the local police. The emphasis was on numbers of population in order to distribute equal taxes etc.

  • For the time from 1834-1852 the censuses were divided into civil and military population, gender, age, i.e., those under 14 years and those over 14 years old and furthermore those who were wives and those who were unmarried women. How these numbers were retrieved was pretty much up to the individual states.
  • In 1843, the guideline was issued to take a census house by house. This method was more accurate and produced better results.
  • In 1867, for the first time a census was taken in all German states simultaneously. Still, the results were not even. Within the states of the Zollverein, the residents were counted while the Norddeutsche Bund as well as Baden and Hessen counted the factual population. The data was derived via household lists, which each head of household had to fill out. He had to count:
    • All persons who resided in his household on the night of the census taking
    • All members of households who were absent on the day of census taking
    • The census was to contain each person with full name, gender, age, profession, nationality, why present or why not.
    • Was a person of a different nationality, the following questions had to be answered: was the person a citizen of that state, or of another and which one?
  • While earlier censuses were mainly taken for statistical and tax purposes, only in 1870 the commission decided to include information about names, standing in household, gender, place of birth, family status, confession, profession, nationality and place of residence.

Seelenregister 1764-1806[edit | edit source]

A census in Württemberg was taken yearly from 1764 to 1806 by locality. The so called Seelenregiste (soul registers) can be found in church books. Parallel to these, statistics from 1769 on counted dwellings, cattle and occupations, etc. Even a Wanderungsstatistik (journeymen record) was kept.

Spource: Pfister, Christian. Bevölkerungsgeschichte und historische Demographie, page 72 

Yearly Population Registers 1816-1933[edit | edit source]

Until 1823 a yearly registration of the population was required going back to the 16th century. The tables listed all persons who belonged to the parish and were registered in family registers independent if absent or not. Such tables were prepared by ministers. By royal decree it was determined that the natural flow of the population should be recorded. Thus all births (legitimate or illegitimate) and deaths were registered beginning in 1832.

After 1832 only every 10 years a census was to be taken. In them the following information was found:

  • Number of citizens by gender
  • Age groups by gender
    • under 6 years
    • 6 to 14 years
    • 14 to 20 years
    • 20 to 25 years
    • 25 to 40 years
    • 40 to 60 years
    • 60 to 70 years
    • 70 -80
    • 80-90
    • 90-100
    • above 100
  • Family status
  • Religion

In 1834 the censuses were taken according to Zollverein modifications.

In 1858 the age groups were modified:

  • under 1 years old,
  • 1-6
  • 7-13
  • 14-14
  • 25-39
  • 40-59
  • 60-79
  • above 80 years old.

With the forming of the German Empire in 1871, censuses were taken with uniform guidelines, executions and evaluations asking for the following information:

  • Standing in household
  • Gender
  • Place of birth
  • Year of birth
  • Family status
  • Religion
  • Profession
  • Nationality
  • Residence
  • All persons present at time of census

Besides this data the individual states could ask for further information but not more than the following:

  • Date of birth instead of just year of birth
  • Mother tongue
  • Education (can read and write)
  • Special deficiencies
  • Reasons for non-household persons’ stay


Sources:
Michel, Harald. Volkszählungen in Deutschland. Die Erfasung des Bevölkerungsstandes von 1816 bis 1933 see http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/JWG/jwg_104_79-91.pdf

Württemberg Census Holdings of the Family History Library[edit | edit source]

Stuttgart[edit | edit source]

Extracts of the 1939 German census concerning non-Germanic minorities living in Stuttgart, Württemberg, Germany. Emphasis is on the Jews.

Freiberg am Neckar, Heutingsheim, Beihingen, Geisingen[edit | edit source]

History of Heutingsheim, Württemberg, Germany; since 1972, incorporated with Beihingen am Neckar and Geisingen am Neckar into Freiberg am Neckar. Includes biographies of prominent citizens, historical background on local families, a transcription of a 1560 tax census, an alphabetical list of emigrants, and a historical gazetteer of place names. Includes index.

For Breitenstein , Neuweiler, Dettenhausen[edit | edit source]

Parish register of baptisms, marriages, deaths, confirmations, pastors, statistics, fatherhood declarations, communicants, census and family registers for Weil im Schönbuch, (OA. Böblingen), Württemberg, Germany. Includes Breitenstein, Neuweiler, Dettenhausen, etc. Text in German.