United States, Wills, Administrations, and Inventories

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

Probate records are court records created after an individual's death that relate to a court's decisions regarding the distribution of his estate to his heirs or creditors and the care of his dependents. You may find the individual's death date, the names of family members, family relationships, and residences. You may also learn about the adoption or guardianship of minor children and dependents. These documents are essential for research because they usually predate the birth and death records kept by civil authorities.

Not everyone left an estate that was probated by a court. Estates were probated for approximately 25 percent of the heads of households in the United States before 1900, whether or not the individual left a will.

While probate records are one of the most accurate sources of genealogical evidence, they must be used with some caution. For example, they may omit the names of deceased family members or those who have previously received an inheritance, or the spouse mentioned in a will may not be the parent of the children mentioned.

What You Are Looking For[edit | edit source]

The information you find varies from record to record. These records may include:

  • Name of an ancestor.
  • Date and place of death.
  • Names of parents.
  • Names of spouse and children.
  • Lists of belongings, property, and so forth.
  • Biographical information.

Steps[edit | edit source]

These 7 steps may help you find information in probate records.

Step 1. Determine the county where your ancestor lived.[edit | edit source]

Check the following to find the county where your ancestor lived:

  • Family records (histories, pedigree charts, family group sheets, etc.).
  • Published family histories.
  • Censuses. The following gives details about the US Censuses United States Census

For additional ways to find where your ancestor lived, see How to Locate Your Ancestor in the United States.

Step 2. Search for a county index for probate records in the Introduction to the FamilySearch Catalog.[edit | edit source]

Many probate records have been digitized in the FamilySearch Catalog. This can be a time-consuming project, but once the record is located, it is possible to download the information, copy or print it. The citation information may also be available for the record. 

Since an index may be found with the record or separately, in the FamilySearch Catalog, look for indexes under both:

  • PROBATE RECORDS plus name of county, state or country
  • PROBATE RECORDS - INDEXES plus name of county, state or country .

Search under "Subjects" and then enter the place and use "Probate Records" for the Subject.

For descriptions of records available use Family History Centers or the Family History Library for guidance. You can also go to the FamiySearch Catalog and use the Wiki page Introduction to the FamilySearch Catalog.

In the Wiki:

Search for:

  • State records in the individual state pages or for county records,
  • Click on the County name on the state page.

Printing the catalog entry is usually helpful. 

If you do not find an index, you may want to look for your ancestor's name in the record itself during the approximate dates after your ancestor died. Skip to step 4.

If you do not find county probate records, see Tip 1.

Step 3. Search the index for your ancestor's name, and copy the information.[edit | edit source]

Find your ancestor's name in the index.

Copy everything about your ancestor from the index. This information is necessary for you to find him or her in the record.

If you cannot find your ancestor's name, check for variations of the spelling. For suggestions, see Name Variations.

Step 4. Find the probate records.[edit | edit source]

Find the catalog entries for the records. If the catalog entry you printed showed both the index and the records, you won't need to return to the catalog to find the film numbers for the appropriate records. If the records have been digitized in the FamilySearch Catalog, it is possible to locate your ancestor's information in the index and then browse through the records to find the record by the record number assigned to the ancestor's case. 

Obtain the book or film with the records.

For information on where to obtain copies of records, see Where to Find It.

Step 5. Search the record for information about your ancestor.[edit | edit source]

Using what you found in the index, find your ancestor in the record.

For a list of Internet sites with probate records or more information about these records, see Tip 2.

Step 6. Copy the information from the record.[edit | edit source]

Make a photocopy of the page(s) with the information about your ancestor. By copying the entire page(s), you can study the record in depth and save it for future reference. You can analyze the handwriting and note other details you may have missed when you first looked at the record. You may find other relatives of your ancestor.

Be sure to document the source of the information by writing the title, author, book or film number, and page number on the copy, or photocopy the title page at the front of the book or film. Also write the name of the library, archive, etc., where you found the probate records.

Step 7. Analyze the information you found.[edit | edit source]

Study the document. Compare the information to what you already knew about your ancestor.

  • What does it tell you about your ancestor and about the people who were with him or her?
  • Does the record give clues about your ancestor which could guide you to other records?
  • Watch for dates, locations, relationships, etc.

Tips[edit | edit source]

Tip 1. What can I do if I cannot find county probate records for the area where my ancestor lived?[edit | edit source]

If you cannot find probate records, check:

  • United States Probate Records
  • State records in the FamilySearch Catalog. For records recommended for your ancestor's state, see the chart below. For Rhode Island there are town probate records. In Connecticut and Vermont there are districts which handled probates.
  • Other types of records, such as church, land, etc., listed on the Search Strategy.
  • Another place where your ancestor lived.
  • PERSI, which is an index of magazines. Information which is too short for a book may be found in a magazine article. For information about PERSI, see Tip 3.

To see recommended probate records for your ancestor's state, search this Wiki for the state name and "Probate Records."

Tip 2. What Internet sites may help me?[edit | edit source]

Check the following general websites:

  • CyndisList which has links to thousands of sites that contain genealogy information of all kinds
  • USGenWeb
  • RootsWeb
  • Ancestry.com which has PERSI and has scanned many books and displays them at this site.

Tip 3. What is PERSI, and where can I find it?[edit | edit source]

PERSI is an index of about 5,000 historical and genealogical magazines. These magazines have articles with:

  • Family histories.
  • Abstracts of church, town, and other records.
  • Histories of towns.
  • Many other records and topics.

PERSI may be found at:

Tip 4. How can I use interlibrary loan?[edit | edit source]

Many public and college libraries can borrow books from other libraries and archives. Only public and college libraries with microfilm readers can borrow microfilms.

  • Go to your public or college library.
  • Ask the librarian to check out a book or microfilm for you through interlibrary loan. You need to give the librarian the title of the book and the name of the author. For a microfilm, give the name and address of the archive that has the microfilm and their microfilm number. The librarian may be able to find this for you.
  • The library staff will help you with their procedures. There may be a small fee.

Where To Find It[edit | edit source]

family history centers and the Family History Library
[edit | edit source]

For information about contacting or visiting a [[Introduction to Family History Centers|family history center] or the Family History Library, see Family History Library and Family History Centers: Library Services and Resources.

Family History Centers[edit | edit source]

Family History Centers can borrow microfilms from the Family History Library.

For the address and phone number of the center nearest you, see family history centers.

Family History Library[edit | edit source]

For descriptions of records available through the Family History Library, go to Introduction to the FamilySearch Catalog or

Use the search box in upper right of this page and search:

  • To find county records, use county and then state name
  • To find town or city records, use a town or city name and then state name.

Archives and Libraries[edit | edit source]

Records are available in many archives and libraries.

Some major archives and libraries in the United States are:

Some college and larger public libraries have probate records, particularly for their own areas. Public libraries may be able to obtain the records through interlibrary loan. For information about interlibrary loan, see Tip 4.
You can find addresses and phone numbers for town, county, and college libraries in the American Library Directory. The American Library Directory is available at most public and college libraries.

Most state archives and university libraries have probate records, particularly for their own areas. The "Archives and Libraries" FamilySearch [United_States_Archives_and_Libraries#Archives_and_Libraries_in_each_State Wiki article of a states lists] Internet and mailing addresses for several state archives, libraries, and historical societies. These organizations may have histories. Their Internet sites may list their records.

Genealogical and Historical Societies[edit | edit source]

Some records may be available at genealogical and historical societies.

You may find the names and addresses of societies in the following sources, which are available at many public and college libraries:

  • The Genealogist's Address Book, by Elizabeth Petty Bentley.
  • Directory of Genealogical and Historical Society Libraries, Archives and Collections in the US and Canada, by Dina C. Carson.
  • Directory of Genealogical Societies in the U.S.A. and Canada, by Mary Meyer.
  • Directory of Historical Organizations in the United States and Canada, edited by Mary Bray Wheeler.
  • The Encyclopedia of Associations, published by Gale Research Co.

You can also check Internet sites such as this one for information about societies:

CyndisList, which has links to thousands of sites that contain genealogy information of all kinds.

Genealogical Search Services[edit | edit source]

 Many genealogical search services will search probate records for a fee. These sources can help you find a genealogical search service:

CyndisList gives many companies and individuals who do research and lists publications that explain how to hire a professional genealogist.
Advertisements in major genealogical journals may help you find a researcher.

For more information, see Hiring a Professional Researcher.