Talk:Glossary of Terms Related to Indigenous Peoples of the United States
Terms to be considered for inclusion in this document:
Alienated Lands: Condemned and sold lands.
Annuity: (1851-1954) Payments made by government to fulfill provisions of treaties and agreements made between the Indians and the Government. Sum of goods or money payable annually (yearly) or at other intervals. A right to receive fixed, periodic payment, either for life or a term of years--payments represent a partial return of capitol and return (interest) as the capitol investment.
During the early years, payments were made to the chiefs or headmen of the tribes, who distributed the payment as they saw fit. Later, payments were made to individual family heads. Censuses were taken as a basis for identifying families entitled to the annuity payments.
Annuity Payrolls (1841-1949): As a result of some of the treaties, the United States government guaranteed certain amounts of money or goods to be paid in regular payments annually or quarterly, usually to the heads of each family.
Beef Issues: An annuity of beef.
Black Dutch: A term used by many Native-Americans, especially Melungeons in the Southern U.S. This term was used to cover native heritage during times of prejudice.
Bread Money: On 3 December 1879, the Cherokee National Council authorized a payment of $16.65 for the purchase of “bread stuffs” based on a census authorized on the same day.
Court of Claims: When an Indian sued the Government in the U.S. Court of Claims; payment was given to the descendants who had to prove their relationship to the person.
Depredations or Spoilation Claims: (1838-1839) BIA records containing affidavits of claimants and witnesses in support of losses suffered by the Indians.
Final Roll: list the individual who received approval for allotment . Finding an ancestor on these rolls is generally considered by the BIA to be proof of Indian ancestry. These records are kept by the agency office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Grass Money: A per capita payment to Cherokees ($15.50) made in 1883 arising from leased lands in the Cherokee Outlet (in the Indian Territory). In 1883 a census was required for the payment. In 1886 another “grass” payment was made with a census roll.
Indian: A Native American. Any person of Indian blood who is on the tribal rolls of an Indian agency, a member of the tribe, usually 1/4 blood. (Definition from the Census Bureau) “A person having Indian blood to such a degree as to be recognized in his community as an Indian.”
Indian Claims: Indians received money if they had proved that they were descendants of Indians living at the time a tribe was wronged.
Non-paper Indians: Are those who did not conform to the government ruling of being listed on all the forms that they had for keeping track of the Indians and their movements. To find those who are not listed on such forms you will need to look in the following types of records: church records, agency records, and census records. If they are not listed on those types of records then you will need to look on the following types: allotment records, heirship records, family registers, enrollment records. These records will contain listings of all the members of the family, such as brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, cousins, and various other relatives to prove that the person receiving the allotment or enrolling has Indian blood lines.
Non-reservation Indian: An Indian living off a federal reservation.
Paper Indians: Indians affiliated with a tribe and who stayed on the reservation. Those who lived under government supervision for whom records were created and kept. Those who accepted reservation, treaty, or annuities coming from the federal government.
Payrolls: A list of those entitled to pay and amounts due to each.
Pony Payments: BIA entry 559-560--Indians received money for ponies seized by the military in 1876.
Records of Employees (1833-1930):Contain names, age, sex, marital status, birthplace, and tribal affiliation. Many agencies hired Native American policeman, farmers, and those who could repair equipment to serve at the agency. Employment records can be found at the National Archives field branches and the Indian agencies.
Scout Records: Record Group 94 for Indian Scouts who served in the regular army, 1866-1914.
Unrecognized Tribes: Tribes not recognized by the United States Federal Government.