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*'''''Language and terminology.''''' If you do not know the native version of a country name, you may think the country name is a town. For example—
{| width="247" align="center" styleclass="plain" classstyle="plain"
| '''Native Name'''
Other foreign terms can be mistaken for place-names. “''Königreich Preußen'',” for example, means the “kingdom of Prussia” and does not refer to a town called Königreich in Prussia. Other foreign terms that may confuse researchers include—
{| width="247" align="center" classstyle="plain" styleclass="plain"
| '''Native Term'''
Many town names are spelled differently in the native language:
{| align="center" class="plain" style="width: 252px; height: 158px;" class="plain"
| '''Native Spelling'''
*'''''State, regional, and provincial names.''''' Instead of the town, some sources only name the county, region, or province. Foreign states, counties, provinces, or regions are unfamiliar to many researchers. Some examples include—
{| align="center" class="plain" style="width: 334px; height: 152px;" class="plain"
| '''Native Term'''
*'''''Place-name changes.''''' Some places have been known by more than one name. Such changes often occurred when another country took over and translated the name into its language. Gdansk in Poland was known as Danzig under German rule. Some name changes were political. For example, Kitchner, Ontario was Berlin before World War I. Other changes have evolved over time. Shropshire, England is sometimes still called Salop, its old name. Other examples include—
{| widthalign="189center" heightstyle="114" align="centerwidth: 234px; height: 114px;" class="plain" style=""
| '''Old Name'''
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