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== Historical Background ==At the time your Jewish ancestors lived in what is now Moldova, it was known as Bessarabia.  ===Jewish History in Moldova===The following articles will provide you with historical background and context:
*Read the Wikipedia.org article ''History of the Jews in Moldova'', by clicking [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Moldova here].
{{Template:Jews in Eastern Europe}}
== Maps and Gazetteers == ====JewishGen Gazetteer==== * The [https://www.jewishgen.org/communities/loctown.asp '''JewishGen Gazetteer'''] is a useful online gazetteer for locations in Eastern Europe. Note that wild card searches are not supported. To view an entry page, click on the '''Jewish star''' to the left of the town name. Entry pages provide jurisdictions for before WWI, the interwar period, after WWII and modern-day. Alternate names and Yiddish and Russian spellings are also included. In the center, you'll find a map and a list of additional Jewish communities located nearby. Finally, under '''Additional Information''' and '''in the green box''' at the top, you'll find links to references and additional resources that may help you in your research. ==== Bessarabia Geographical Dictionary ===='''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/TPL_Base.asp?id=24 Bessarabia Geographical Dictionary]''' available through the Bessarabia Special Interest Group (SIG) is a list of places Jews lived or conducted business. The gazetteer is available to download in both Excel and PDF format.
==== JewishGen Gazetteer Spiski Naselennykh Mest Rossiiskoi Imperii ====<br The Spiski is a Russian langauge gazetteer that lists the populated places in Imperial Russia. The [http://elib.shpl.ru/ru/>nodes/16030-vyp-3-bessarabskaya-guberniya-po-svedeniyam-1859-goda-1861#mode/grid/page/1/zoom/1 '''Bessarabia Gubernia (Province) Spiski'''] is available online. For help reading this gazetteer, see the [[Russia "How to" Guides|Spiski Gazetteer "How to" Guide]].
==== Maps ====
*'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/TPL_Base.asp?id=20 JewishGen Bessarabia SIG Military-Topographical Maps]''' explore the other map options under the Map tab on the Bessarabia SIG website.
*To view present-day Moldova at Google Maps, click [https://maps.google.com/maps?q=Moldova&hl=en&ll=46.83765,29.069824&spn=6.764384,16.907959&sll=40.379214,-111.733668&sspn=0.11769,0.264187&oq=moldo&hnear=Moldova&t=m&z=7 here].
*For a Jewish population density map of Europe in 1900, click [[Jewish Population Maps|here]].
*To view an additional historical map showing the historical percentage of Jews in governments, click [http://books.google.com/books?id=sr85AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA531&lpg=PA531&dq=%22percentage+of+jews+in+governments%22+map&source=bl&ots=BK42kcedcz&sig=Eb1EvyRT9xaaOxNAlNit1-q2_yU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PcwMU5-xMcGBogTyqYKABg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22percentage%20of%20jews%20in%20governments%22%20map&f=false here].
== Genealogies ==
==== JewishGen Family Finder ====
*The [https://www.jewishgen.org/jgff/ '''Family Finder'''] is a database of both ancestral hometowns and surnames that have been researched by their descendants world wide. The Family Finder allows you to connect with others who are researching similar ancestors and origins and collaborate your research. To add the surnames and locations you are researching, click on '''Modify (Edit your existing entries)''' or '''Enter (Add new entries)'''. Type in the surnames and/or locations of interest and hit '''Submit'''. To search the database and see if you can connect to family members and other researchers, choose '''Search (Search the database)''' from the Town Finder home page. You can search for a surname and/or a town. Search results will appear in a chart format giving you the surname, town, country, and researcher information (often includes contact information) and the date they last logged into JewishGen.
== 1897 Census? Revision and Family Lists==The 1897 Russian Imperial Census was Revision lists are enumerations of the first and only census carried out taxable population (most Jews in the Russian Empireempire fell into a taxable social class). The census enumerated the entire population of the Empire (excluding Finland), but after statistical data was gathered, many of the census returns There were destroyedten revisions taken sporadically from 1772-1858. There These records area foundational source in genealogical research as they provide names, ages, however; surviving census returns for many locations throughout Ukraine. Use the resources below to help you determine if census records survive for your ancestor's shtetl and how to access them. Use the [https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/img_auth.php/8/86/Reading_the_1897_Census_-_Instruction.pdf '''Reading the 1897 Census "How to" Guide'''] to learn how to read census recordsrelationships.  
==== JewishGen (indexed Supplemental Lists, also known as Family Lists, can be found ranging from about 1860 through the end of the nineteenth century. They are similar in format to revision lists and are often grouped with revision list records) ====in an archive.
====JewishGen (indexed records)====
Many revision list records have been indexed and are available through the '''[https://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Romania/ JewishGen Romania-Moldova Database.]''' To see translation/indexing projects in progress, see the '''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/res_projectlist.asp Bessarabia SIG Project Search Form.]'''
====1897 Census Finding AidsFamilySearch (digital images) ====Census returns There may also exist for other locations, but images or indexes may not be records available online. Use sites such as through the [http://arch1897.histcensus.asu.ru/ '''Archive Fonds of [Introduction to the First 1897 All-Russia Census'''] or the [http://metrics.tilda.ws/perepis1897 FamilySearch Catalog|'''FamilySearch Catalog of Surviving Census Sheets in Archives of Russia, Ukraine, and Other Countries'''] to help you determine if census records exist for your area. These sites are in Russian, but can be easily navigated using Google Translate. If you are using the Google Chrome browser, just right click anywhere on the page and click Translate to '''English'''. If you are using a different browser (Safari, Firefox, Edge, etc.) you can still use Google Translate, but it requires a few extra steps. Go to [https://translate.google.com/ '''translate.google.com'''] and change the language settings to translate from Russian to English. Paste the URL of the site you would like translated into the Russian box and then click on the link that shows up in the English box. This will take you a translated version of the site.
:a. Click '''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&placeId= Revision and Family Lists =123&query=%2Bplace%3AMoldova here]''' to access catalog entries for Moldova.Revision lists are enumerations :b. Click on '''Places within Moldova''' and a list of the taxable population (most Jews in the Russian empire fell into a taxable social class)places will appear. There were ten revisions taken sporadically from 1772-1858. These records are You may need to click on a foundational source in genealogical research as they provide names, ages, district and relationshipsthen select the '''Places within''' feature again.:f. Click on the '''Taxation''' or '''Census''' topic. Click on the blue links to view specific record titles.Supplemental Lists, also known as Family Lists, can be found ranging from about 1860 through :e. Icons will appear at the end far right of the nineteenth centurylisting for the record. They are similar in format The magnifying glass indicates that the record is indexed. Clicking on the magnifying glass will take you to the index. Clicking on the camera will take you to revision lists and are often grouped an online digital copy of the records. A camera with a key on top means the record is viewable but with revision list records certain restrictions that may mean the record can only be viewed at the Family History Library in an archiveSalt Lake City, a Family History Center, or FamilySearch Affiliate Library==== JewishGen (indexed records) ====Many revision list records have been indexed and are available through Take a look at the '''[https://www.jewishgenfamilysearch.org/databaseshelp/fhcenters/Romanialocations/ JewishGen Romania-Moldova Database.]'''Family History Center Finder'''] to discover a location near you.
====Revision List Finding Aids====
If you are unable to locate records online, there are several resources to help you determine what records are available for your town and which archive they are currently stored in. Revision list records are referred to as "census" records, and may be translated as "Revision tales" or "Fairy tales." See the [https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Ukraine_Jewish_Records#Additional_Records_-_Finding_Aids_and_Record_Inventories '''Additional Resources-''' '''Finding Aids and Records Inventories'''] heading in this Wiki article for more information.  
== Vital Records ==
Throughout the Russian Empire, birth, marriage, divorce, and death records were required to be kept by the Jewish community beginning in 1835. Jewish records were generally kept in a tabular format with the left-side of the page in Russian and the right-side of the page in Hebrew. Vital records are available online in both indexed and digital image formats.
==== JewishGen (indexed records) ====<br Many vital records have been indexed and are available through the '''[https:/>/www.jewishgen.org/databases/Romania/ JewishGen Romania-Moldova Database.]''' To see translation/indexing projects in progress, see the '''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/res_projectlist.asp Bessarabia SIG Project Search Form.]''' ==== Ancestry (indexed records) ====Birth records, 1829-1910, are available as indexes from Ancestry in the '''[https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/1393/ Bessarabia (now Moldova), Births, 1829-1910 Collection.]''' Indexes ''may'' contain a Family History Library microfilm number, and images may be accessible online. Use the '''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog FamilySearch Catalog]''' and search using the ''Film/Fiche Number'' to see about record availability.  ==== FamilySearch (digital images) ====There may also be records available through the [[Introduction to the FamilySearch Catalog|'''FamilySearch Catalog''']]. :a. Click '''[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/results?count=20&placeId=123&query=%2Bplace%3AMoldova here]''' to access catalog entries for Moldova.:b. Click on '''Places within Moldova''' and a list of places will appear. You may need to click on a district and then select the '''Places within''' feature again.:f. Click on the '''Jewish Record''' topic (it may be found at either the town or uyezd level). Click on the blue links to view specific record titles.:e. Icons will appear at the far right of the listing for the record. The magnifying glass indicates that the record is indexed. Clicking on the magnifying glass will take you to the index. Clicking on the camera will take you to an online digital copy of the records. A camera with a key on top means the record is viewable but with certain restrictions that may mean the record can only be viewed at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, a Family History Center, or FamilySearch Affiliate Library. Take a look at the [https://www.familysearch.org/help/fhcenters/locations/ '''Family History Center Finder'''] to discover a location near you. 
====Vital Records Finding Aids====
If you are unable to locate records online, there are several great resources to help you determine what records are available for your town and which archive they are currently stored in. See the '''[https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Ukraine_Jewish_Records#Additional_Records_-_Finding_Aids_and_Record_Inventories Additional Records - Finding Aids and Records Inventories]''' heading in this Wiki article for more information.  
== Cemeteries ==
*'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Cemetery/ JewishGen Online Worldwide Burial Registry]''' contains 230,000 burial records for Romania and Moldova. *'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/RES_ProjectList.asp?doctype=14 Bessarabia SIG Cemeteries Projects]''' has a list of 79 cemeteries where Jews were buried in Bessarabia/Moldova. Many tombstones have been transcribed, and with a donation you may be able to recieve a photograph of the grave. The SIG also manages restoration and cleaning projects for cemeteries. See also [https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/RES_CollectionList.asp?dctid=14&listtype=P '''Cemeteries Collections'''.]
== Holocaust ==
*'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Romania/ JewishGen Romania-Moldova Database]''' contains Holocaust specific collections.
*[https://portal.ehri-project.eu/ '''European Holocaust Research Infrastructure Online Portal'''] offers information on Holocaust archival material held in institutions in Europe and throughout the world.
*[https://arolsen-archives.org/en/search-explore/search-online-archive/ '''Arolsen Archives,'''] also known as the International Center on Nazi Persecution, is one of the largest archives on the victims of Nazi persecution. Many of their holdings are available to research online.
*[https://yvng.yadvashem.org/index.html?language=en '''Yad Vashem Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names'''] is a database of victims of the Holocaust.
*'''[https://www.nizkor.org/carmelly-felicia/ The Nizkor Project]''' collects information about the Holocaust in Bessarabia, Moldova, Romania, and Transnistria. *'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/TPL_Base.asp?id=17 Holocaust in Bessarabia]''' - JewishGen Bessarabia SIG contains useful links to information about the Holocaust in Bessarabia, as well as links to area specific memorials and mass graves.
== Yizkor Books ==Yizkor books are memorial books commemorating a Jewish community that was destroyed during the Holocaust. Books are usually published by former residents and records the remembrance of homes, people and ways of life lost during World War II. Most books are written in Yiddish or Hebrew, but in recent years, many have been translated and made available online. Take a look at the [https://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/ '''JewishGen Yizkor Book Project'''] or the '''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/RES_CollectionList.asp?dctid=8&listtype=P Bessarabia SIG Yizkor Book Translations Collection]''' to locate a translation or Yizkor book for your locality of interest.To see the status of translations of Bessarabian Yizkor books, see the '''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/RES_ProjectList.asp?doctype=8&listtype=P Bessarabia SIG Yizkor Book Translations Project.]'''
== Additional Records - Finding Aids and Record Inventories == ==== JewishGen (indexed records) ===='''[https://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Romania/ The JewishGen Romania-Moldova Database]''' contains indexes of additional records including Soviet Repression records, business and commercial directories, WWI information, voter lists, and more!
====Miriam Weiner Routes to Roots Foundation====
The [https://www.rtrfoundation.org/index.shtml '''Routes to Roots'''] site contains articles, essays, maps, archivist insights, and an archival inventory for Jewish research in Moldova and other Eastern European countries. The website also contains a database of record inventories that is searchable by town. The search for documents in Eastern European ancestral towns is complicated, partly because of the destruction of documents during the Holocaust and changing borders and names. Only the first few letters of the town needs to be known, as all towns beginning with those letters will appear in the list. Some towns will even be cross-referenced with spelling variations or name changes. However, to determine the current spelling of a town, consult the [https://www.jewishgen.org/communities/loctown.asp '''JewishGen Gazetteer'''] or ''Where Once We Walked'' by Mokotoff and Sack. The database will note the types of documents that has survived for that town, including army lists, Jewish vital records, family lists, census records, voter and tax lists, immigration documents, Holocaust material, school records, occupational lists, and more. The span of years covered by these documents and where to find them will also be provided. Records in the archives can be accessed on various websites or databases (such as [https://www.jewishgen.org/ '''JewishGen''']) in person at the archives, by writing to the archives directly, or by hiring a professional researcher to do the work.<ref>Weiner, Miriam. "Eastern European Archival Database Planned". ''AVOTAYNU'' XVII no. 3 (Fall 2001): 3-5.</ref>
*See [http://www.rtrfoundation.org/ '''Routes to Roots Foundation'''] and '''hover over Moldova''' for a Genealogical and Family History guide to Jewish and civil records in Eastern Europe.*See also the book, ''Jewish roots in Ukraine and Moldova'' by Miriam Weiner (FamilySearch Catalog call no. 947.71 F2w 1999).
====Jewish Roots====
The '''[https://forum.j-roots.info/searchdb_form.php Еврейские Корни (Jewish Roots)]''' site is an excellent resource to help you locate archival documents. The website is in Russian, but if you are using the Google Chrome browser, simply right click anywhere on the page and select ''Translate to English.'' Search using the name of the town (find the Cyrillic spelling of the town on [https://www.jewishgen.org/Communities/Search.asp JewishGen Town Finder]) to see what archival records might be available for your location. In addition to the database, use the '''[https://forum.j-roots.info/index.php Forum]''' to connect with other researchers and find other potential resources for your location.
==== Bessarabia.ru ====The [http://www.bessarabia.ru/5a.htm '''Sources for Genealogical Searches'''] tab at ''Bessarabia.ru'' contains information about the types of records available in archives. The site is available in English, but as you explore, consider using the '''[http://www.bessarabia.ru/velcom.htm Russian version of the site]''', as in some cases, more information is available. If you do not read Russian, use the Google Chrome browser, then simply right click anywhere on the page and select ''Translate to English.'' You may also wish to use their '''[http://bessarabia.forum24.ru/ Forum]''' to inquire about records and connect with other researchers.  == Reading Records ==
Moldovan/Bessarabian Jewish records are most commonly written in Russian or Hebrew. Use the resources in this list to help you learn how to read the records. You may also consider using a free translation service such as the [https://community.familysearch.org/s/ '''FamilySearch Community'''] (Be sure to post in the Russian Empire Genealogy Research group or tag ''@RussianEmpireGenealogyResearch'' in your question) or [https://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/ '''JewishGen View Mate.''']
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wl8e0nMUHvk Hebrew Naming and How to Read Hebrew Headstones (YouTube Video)]
== Additional Resources ==
*'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/default.asp JewishGen Bessarabia SIG]'''
*'''[https://www.jewishgen.org/bessarabia/RES_MasterIndex.asp Bessarabia SIG Names Database]'''
===Miriam Weiner Routes to Roots Foundation===Data regarding locations of Moldovan Jewish records originally published in books by Miriam Weiner is now on this website with periodic updates. Contains articles, essays, maps, archivist insights, and archival inventory for Jewish research in Moldova. The website also contains a database of documents that is searchable by town. The search for documents in Eastern Europe ancestral towns is complicated, partly because of the destruction of documents during the Holocaust and changing borders and names. Only the first few letters of the town needs to be known, as all towns beginning with those letters will appear in the list. Some towns will even be cross-referenced with spelling variations or name changes. However, to determine the current spelling of a town, consult *''Where Once We Walked'' by Mokotoff and Sack (Avotaynu, 1991). The database will note the types of documents that has survived for that town, including army lists, Jewish vital records, family lists, census records, voter and tax lists, immigration documents, Holocaust material, school records, occupational lists, and more. The span of years covered by these documents and where to find them will also be provided. Records in the archives can be accessed on various websites or databases (such as [httpshttp://www.jewishgenbessarabia.orgru/ JewishGen]) in person at the archives, by writing to the archives directly, or by hiring default-a professional researcher to do the work. By consolidating data from five Eastern European countries, researchers can easily determine which records are kept by which archives or repositories.<ref>Weiner, Miriam. "Eastern European Archival Database Planned"htm Bessarabia. ru]''AVOTAYNU'' XVII no. 3 (Fall 2001): 3-5.</ref> *See '''[httphttps://www.rtrfoundationjewishgen.org/ Routes Bessarabia/files/conferences/2016/MigrationToBessarabia.pdf Migration to Roots FoundationBessarabia/Moldova Presentation by Yefim A. Kogan.] and '''hover over Moldova''' for a Genealogical and Family History guide to Jewish and civil records in Eastern Europe*See also the book, ''Jewish roots in Ukraine and Moldova'' by Miriam Weiner (FamilySearch Catalog call no. 947.71 F2w 1999)
===References===
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