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| link1=[[United States Genealogy|United States]]
 
| link1=[[United States Genealogy|United States]]
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:::An amended birth certificate, created after an adoption is finished, lists the names of the adoptive parents just as if the child had been born to them originally.  
 
:::An amended birth certificate, created after an adoption is finished, lists the names of the adoptive parents just as if the child had been born to them originally.  
 
:::Many people will have an amended birth certificate, with no access to the original. About half of the states allow adults to have access to their original birth certificates. See [https://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/adult-adoptee-access-to-original-birth-certificates.aspx#:~:text=Colorado%2C%20Delaware%2C%20Illinois%2C%20Maryland,the%20information%20not%20be%20released. '''Adult Adoptee Access to Original Birth Certificates''']
 
:::Many people will have an amended birth certificate, with no access to the original. About half of the states allow adults to have access to their original birth certificates. See [https://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/adult-adoptee-access-to-original-birth-certificates.aspx#:~:text=Colorado%2C%20Delaware%2C%20Illinois%2C%20Maryland,the%20information%20not%20be%20released. '''Adult Adoptee Access to Original Birth Certificates''']
*Alabama, Alaska, Maine, Oregon, and the U.S. Virgin Islands,allow access to original birth certificates at the request of an adult adoptee, without a court order and without the consent of the birth parents.
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:::An original birth certificate may be obtained through a '''court petition.'''  
*Colorado, Delaware, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Washington allow adoptees to request birth certificates unless the birth parent specifically requested that the information not be released.
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*Idaho, Mississippi and the Northern Mariana Islands, for example, allow access when all parties consent to the release of the information, while other states allow accessing only when the birth parents consent.
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*Still, other states limit access to adoptees born in certain years. Some states delay access in order to prepare biological parents for the possibility of contact with a child they placed for adoption.
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*State action in 2016 includes a new law in Indiana that allows adoption information to be released unless a non-release form is on file. *Hawaii legislation allows adult adoptees, adoptive parents and natural parents “unfettered” access to the adopted person’s sealed records. *Missouri allows an adoptee to apply for an original copy of his or her birth certificate, with certain restrictions and includes a waiting period and fee. The Hawaii and Missouri bills were awaiting governors’ signatures at the time of publication. Pending legislation in *Pennsylvania would provide an adult adoptee with access to a noncertified copy of his or her original birth record information without the consent of the birth parents. It also would allow for redacting birth parents’ names from a birth record and provide contact preference forms.
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:::In other states, an original birth certificate may be obtained through a '''court petition.'''  
   
:*'''Hospital records''': Hospitals often retain birth registers and occasionally have medical information on children born there. Medical records regarding the person you are searching for may sometimes be obtained.
 
:*'''Hospital records''': Hospitals often retain birth registers and occasionally have medical information on children born there. Medical records regarding the person you are searching for may sometimes be obtained.
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===Making Contact With Relatives===
 
===Making Contact With Relatives===
 
====Mutual Consent Registries====
 
====Mutual Consent Registries====
*[STATE] has a mutual consent registry. A mutual consent registry is a means for individuals directly involved in adoptions to indicate their willingness or unwillingness to have their identifying information disclosed.  
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*A mutual consent registry is a means for individuals directly involved in adoptions to indicate their willingness or unwillingness to have their identifying information disclosed.  
*Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia (as of 11 September 2020)
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*Most registries require consent of at least one birth parent and an adoptee over the age of 18 or 21, or of adoptive parents if the adoptee is a minor, in order to release identifying information.
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*Most states that have registries require the parties seeking to exchange information to file affidavits consenting to the release of their personal information.
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*The [STATE] registry will release identifying information '''unless a non-consent form has been filed''' (as of 11 September 2020):
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{|
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|-
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|
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::Hawaii
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::Indiana (for adoptions finalized after 12/31/1993)
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::Maryland (for adoptions finalized after 1/1/2000)
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::Michigan (for adoptions finalized before 5/28/1948 or after 9/12/1980)
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|
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::Minnesota (for adoptions finalized after 8/1/1982)
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::Nebraska (for adoptions finalized after 9/1/1998)
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::Ohio (for adoptions finalized after 1996)
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::Vermont (for adoptions finalized after 7/1/1986)
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|}
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====Finding a Mutual Consent Registry====
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To find contact information for a state agency or department that assists in accessing adoption records, go to Child Welfare Information Gateway's National Foster Care and Adoption Directory and search under State Reunion Registries/ConfidentialIntermediary Services:
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*[https://www.childwelfare.gov/nfcad/ '''State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services''']
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::Select "[STATE]" from the drop-down menu.
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::Scroll down to "Adoption Search" and click the box for "State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services".
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::Click on "GO".
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====International Soundex Reunion Registry====
 
====International Soundex Reunion Registry====
 
*[http://www.isrr.org/About.html '''International Soundex Reunion Registry,'''] a free mutual consent reunion registry for people seeking birth relatives.
 
*[http://www.isrr.org/About.html '''International Soundex Reunion Registry,'''] a free mutual consent reunion registry for people seeking birth relatives.
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====Confidential Intermediary System====
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*[STATE] has a search and consent procedure called a '''confidential intermediary system'''. With this system, an individual called a confidential intermediary is certified by the court to have access to sealed adoption records for the purpose of conducting a search for birth family members to obtain their consent for contact.
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*States using confidential intermediaries include (as of 11 September 2020):
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{|
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|-
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|
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::Alabama (when consent is not on file)
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::Colorado
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::Florida (to contact family members who have <br>not registered with the adoption registry)
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::Illinois (to obtain updated medical information)
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::Michigan (when consent is not on file)
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::Montana
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|style="vertical-align:top"|
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::North Carolina
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::North Dakota
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::Oklahoma
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::Virginia
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::Washington
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::Wyoming
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|}
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====Finding Confidential Intermediary Services====
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To find contact information for a [STATE] agency or department that assists in accessing adoption records, go to Child Welfare Information Gateway's National Foster Care and Adoption Directory and search under state Reunion Registries/ConfidentialIntermediary Services:
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*[https://www.childwelfare.gov/nfcad/ '''State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services''']
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::Select [STATE] from the drop-down menu.
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::Scroll down to "Adoption Search" and click the box for "State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services".
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::Click on "GO".
      
====Affidavit System====
 
====Affidavit System====
[STATE] uses an affidavit system through which birth family members can either file their consent to release identifying information or to register their refusal to be contacted or to release identifying information. The written permission may be referred to as a consent, waiver, or authorization form.
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Wisconsin uses an affidavit system through which birth family members can either file their consent to release identifying information or to register their refusal to be contacted or to release identifying information. The written permission may be referred to as a consent, waiver, or authorization form.
 
To find the contact information to inquire about using this system, go to:
 
To find the contact information to inquire about using this system, go to:
 
*[https://www.childwelfare.gov/nfcad/ '''State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services''']
 
*[https://www.childwelfare.gov/nfcad/ '''State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services''']
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::Scroll down to "Adoption Search" and click the box for "State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services".
 
::Scroll down to "Adoption Search" and click the box for "State Reunion Registries/Confidential Intermediary Services".
 
::Click on "GO".
 
::Click on "GO".
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{|
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|-
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|
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::Alabama
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::Alaska
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::California
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::Georgia
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::Kentucky
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::Massachusetts
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::Minnesota
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| style="vertical-align:top"|
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::Mississippi
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::Nebraska
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::New Hampshire
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::New Mexico
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::Pennsylvania
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::Wisconsin
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|}
      
==For Further Reading==
 
==For Further Reading==
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