[[Category:Lower Saxony, Germany]]
Hannover===== Rural living conditions in the principality/kingdom of Hannover 1650-1850 ===
In order to get a better picture of how people functioned and what was expected of them we need to look closely at their circumstances. Often we garner clues from knowing what our ancestors most likely had to adhere to when going about daily activities.
The described patterns are true for all of Lower Saxony in the time frame of 1650-1850 with exception of few local customs.
<br>Source: <br>Begemann, Ulrike. ''Bäuerliche Lebensbedingungen im Amt Blumenau (Fürstentum Calenberg) 1650-1850 ''Historischer Verein für Niedersachsen. Hahnsche Buchhandlung.
=== Grundherrschaft and Gutsherrschaft in Germany ===
One or two days a week the farmer had to work for his landlord. Besides services the farmer was also called upon to do errands and guard service.
Records regarding time lease can be found in the State archives of
Source: Uwe Weddige. ''[http://www.honerkamps.de/Honerkamp/de/life/society/meier-right_de.htm Das Meierrecht]<br>''
=== '''Land consolidation (Verkoppelung)''' ===
Since the middle of the 18th century a call for reform in land usage and –occupancy was underway in
Hannover. Motivations for such measures varied. Groups in villages wanted more access to farmland. This view was held by the more prosperous farm owners, who hoped for better usage, intensified farming and higher yields. Rich landowners supported land consolidations because they wished for population in unpopulated areas, such as the heath in the Northwest. Agricultural scientists wanted extensive reforms because they found fault with the efficiency of the old farming methods, the three field system and the Hutgerechtigkeit (grazing rights on commonly owned properties). To use the farming land in such a way was altogether not very profitable because a field did not need to lie fallow if adequate fertilizer was applied. (Fertilizer was applied through cattle). However, dung could not be harvested and used on one’s fields because the cattle grazed day and night in designated areas as was regulated by village authorities. Not only did the farmers not get the necessary fertilizer, but the animals themselves rendered the fields worthless through overgrazing. The Hutgerechtigkeit hindered the farmer to be lord over his land and get the best yield from it.<br>Another restriction farmers faced was the narrow parcels of land allotted to them which on top were generally not connected. At ploughing times it often happened that a neighboring field got damaged, thus impacting the harvest when such a field was already ploughed and the seed put in. Hence, the urgent plea from various sides to eliminate the practice of letting cattle graze according to regulations and to consolidate farmland so that a better harvest could be assured through adequately fed animals and properly fertilized and cultivated fields.<br>The land consolidation was not accomplished in a few years and was dragged out in heath and marshlands into the 19th century. The lack of a legal base was the main reason. The breakthrough came with the regulations issued in Lüneburg in 1802. In 1824, 1842 and 1856 further laws were issued in the Kingdom of Hannover, Herzogtum Braunschweig and Grossherzogtum Oldenburg.<br>The records coming out of land consolidations were amortizations (Ablösungen), part of the lower court system (Grundbuchamt).
Source: Lernwerkstatt Geschichte Hist. Seminar
Hannover<br>Krünitz online http://www.kruenitz1.uni-trier.de/
=== '''Bauernbefreiung''' (absolvence from serfdom) ===
From 1808 on the principle of Ablösung (absolvence) was in force for the rural population of the Kurfürstentum
Hannover. Emancipation of the serfs was the aim. However, the task proved not to be easy. Reforms had to be set into place. The July Revolution of 1830 in France had influence also on the German rural population. Their protests made it possible to establish the Ablösungsordnung of 1833 for the Kingdom of Hannover. Farmers were freed from feudal obligations but instead had to pay regular payments for the land they occupied. Most farmers could not afford such hefty obligations. Only the establishment of a state credit association allowed the farmers the breakthrough for an intensive amortization activity. However, the progress was slow. Only 40% of farmers had satisfied all requirements by 1850, in 1865 it was 75%. If a farmer could not meet the demands of amortization, he was able to convert the charge into an annuity which had to be satisfied within 41 1/2 years. After that the debt was extinct. Thus the farmers accomplished freedom from feudal oppression.
Source: [http://www.lwg.uni-hannover.de/wiki/Dorf_in_der_Neuzeit http://www.lwg.uni-hannover.de/wiki/Dorf_in_der_Neuzeit]
2.1 §. 1. Befreiung des Grund-Eigenthums. Befugniß dazu. (Permission for the land to be taken over)<br>2.2 §. 2. Nähere Bestimmung. (explanatory notes)<br>2.3 §. 3. Nicht ablösbare Lasten. (servitudes which cannot be absloved)<br>2.4 §. 4. Forst-Cultur-Dienste. (services re. wooded areas)<br>2.5 §. 5. Suspension der Ablösung neu constituirter Lasten. (suspension of absolvence re. newly constituted obligations<br>2.6 §. 6. Veräußerlichkeit ganzer Höfe. (Salable farms)<br>2.7 §. 7. Grundsätze, nach denen die Befreiung geschieht. Allgemeiner Grundsatz. (Conditions under which absolvence are possible. General condtions.<br>2.8 §. 8. Bestimmung der Entschädigung. (Regulations for compensation)<br>2.9 §. 9. Entschädigungsmittel. (What sorts of compensation)<br>2.10 §. 10. Capital-Ablösung. (Amortization)<br>2.11 §. 11. Land-Abfindung. (Absolvence of land)<br>2.12 §. 12. Geld- und Frucht-Rente. (Money or in-kind annuity)<br>2.13 §. 13. Compensation der auf den Grundstücken des Berechtigten ruhenden Lasten. (Compensation for the goods and services attached to the land)<br>2.14 §. 14. Berechnung des Capitalwerths der Renten. (Cost of capital)<br>2.15 §. 15. Ausmittelung des Geldwerths der Natural-Abgaben. (Cost of pay in kind)<br>2.16 §. 16. Wahlrecht bei Lasten, die in natura oder in Gelde zu leisten sind. (Choice when obligations are to be paid with money or in kind).<br>2.17 §. 17. Nothwendigkeit der Ablösung veränderlicher Gefälle. (The necessity of amortization in case of variable gradients)
Many archival records found in the archives of Niedersachsen deal with Ablösung. Please refer to the [http://aidaonline.niedersachsen.de/ AIDAonline] catalog of the various state archives of Lower Saxony.How to use this site please refer to the notes in the article ''[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Prussia-
Hannover_Archives_and_Libraries Research in Lower Saxony's State archives]''.
A contract of absolvence can be found [http://www.lwg.uni-hannover.de/wiki/1843_Arpke here]
The contract is between Johann Heinrich Aselmann at Arpke as Provocant and Carl Ernst Johann von Steinberg in Brüggen, Johann Ernst August Philipp von Steinberg in
Hannover and Major Georg Carl von Steinberg as Provocat.
'''Paragraph 1''' declares that the Provocant has to pay a tribute every year at the same time to the Provocanten. The place of delivery is Arpke.<br><br>'''Paragraph 2''' indicates that the tribute is part of the amortization in addition to the sum of 240 Reichsthaler, 10 Gute Groschen, und 9 Pfennig in the local currency.<br><br>'''Paragraph 3''' contains a clause in case of default. 13 Gute Groschen and 3 Pfennig are added to the total sum. <br>'''Paragraph 4''' . According to the Provocant the tribute belongs to the so called Fideicommisgüter (family farms) with the restriction that this is designated for stipends for students of theology.<br>'''Paragraph 5''' determines that the amortization sum plus 4 % interest is due in Arpke 6 months after confirmation of this contract. The Provocaten declare that after receipt of said sum the property will be free of all obligations. <br>'''Paragraph 6''' indicates that all costs concerning the contract will be the responsibilty of the Provocant.<br>In '''paragraph 7''' all parties will refrain from all objections and excuses, sign and ask for a confirmation of this contract as well as for a legal copy of the contract for the cousin of Ernst Georg Carl von Steinberg, Carl Ernst Johann von Steinberg.
Hannover, Hann 74 Burgdorf II, Nr. 358
[http://www.lwg.uni-hannover.de/wiki/1831 Lernwerkstatt Geschichte] - Ablösungen
<br> Höfe Amt Grönenberg [http://www.osfa.de/datenbanken/db_hoefe.php http://www.osfa.de/datenbanken/db_hoefe.php]. This site gives informative information regarding Hofs in