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{{Schleswig-Holstein-sidebar}}{{breadcrumb| link1=[[Germany Genealogy|Germany]]| link2=Time Line [[Schleswig-Holstein, German Empire Genealogy|Schleswig-Holstein]]| link3=| link4=| link5= Timeline}}
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=== 9th century ===
===9th century=== <br>In order to protect themselves from invading Saxons, the Danes in the north built the DANEWERK and the Saxons built a protection against the Wenden (Slavs), the LIMES SAXONIAE, running from Kiel south to the River Elbe, through Lüneburg. In Wagrien (now Ostholstein, Probstei) we still find traces of Wendish influence, i.e. the name of the village Wenddorp (Wendtorf), some Wendish family names, like Jessien, Puck and Steffen. Names ending in –iz, -ow or –in are usually names of Slavic origin.
In order to protect themselves from invading Saxons, the Danes in the north built the DANEWERK and the Saxons built a protection against the Wenden (Slavs), the LIMES SAXONIAE, running from Kiel south to the River Elbe, through Lüneburg. === 1140 In Wagrien (now Ostholstein, Probstei) we still find traces of Wendish influence, i.e. the name of the village Wenddorp (Wendtorf), some Wendish family names, like Jessien, Puck and Steffen. Names ending in –iz, -ow or –in are usually names of Slavic origin. ===
1140 Wagrien, land of the Slavs is conquered by the Holsten and Storman.The Slavs lose their independence, become Christians and assimilatewith their neighbors, who were recruited from Flanders, Holland, Westphalia and Friesland.
=== 1200 Beginning of dyke building, first under the supervision of the church, then it became privatized. In the 1600s this lead to morereliable structures, i.e. people from the Netherlands brought techniques with them for considerable improvements. ===
1201 The land north Beginning of dyke building, first under the river Elbe becomes Danishsupervision of the church, then it became privatized. In the 1600s this lead to more reliable structures, i.e. people from the Netherlands brought techniques with them for considerable improvements.
1202 Stadtrecht (privilege of towns to have separate laws than the rest of the country) in Schleswig and other cities, like Mölln and Lübeck, Oldenburg, Plön, Itzehoe, Kiel, Eutin, Lauenburg. The Bürger (citizen) comes into being. Next to tax records citizenship recordswere kept.=== 1201 ===
1227 Battle The land north of Bornhöved signified the end of river Elbe becomes Danish rule in Holstein
1273 Holstein was divided into 5 duchies: Kiel, Segeberg, Plön, Rendsburg and Pinneberg=== 1202 ===
1350 The first Black Death epidemic swept over Schleswig-Holstein,Stadtrecht (privilege of towns to have separate laws than the last one occurred in the middle rest of the 1700scountry) in Schleswig and other cities, like Mölln and Lübeck, Oldenburg, Plön, Itzehoe, Kiel, Eutin, Lauenburg. The Bürger (citizen) comes into being. It wiped out up Next to50% of the population in some areastax records citizenship records were kept.
1350s The Hanse (an alliance of merchants) with the seat in Lübeck === 1227 flourishes in the Baltic region, to be reduced in influence by Dutch enterprising and Hamburg’s outreach to the West in the 1600s.===
Battle of Bornhöved signified the end of Danish rule in Holstein
=== 1273 ===
1362 The great tidal wave “De grote Manndränke” claimed more than 100.000 deathsHolstein was divided into 5 duchies: Kiel, 34 churches Segeberg, Plön, Rendsburg and the city of Rungholt. After this tragedy, the race for land reclamation started in Northern Frisia.Pinneberg
1459 Death of Duke Adolf VII. He is the last Schauenburger.=== 1350 ===
1460 Election of Christian I, Duke of The first Black Death epidemic swept over Schleswig and Earl of -HolsteinPrivilege , the last one occurred in the middle of Ripen, a promise that the territories 1700s. It wiped out up to 50% of Schleswig undHolstein will not be divided any morethe population in some areas.
1465 Husum receives the status of === 1350s Flecken. A Flecken is a settlement be-tween the seize of a village and a town, also known as Blek. Fleckenwere rural villages centrally located. They had guild privileges for journeymen, exemption from military service and the right to hold market days. 1475 First printing press in Lübeck===
1494 First printing The Hanse (an alliance of merchants) with the Bible seat in Lübeckflourishes in the Baltic region, to be reduced in influence by Dutch enterprising and Hamburg’s outreach to the West in the 1600s.
1496 Vierstädtegericht (four city courts) === 1362 In order to get away from Lübeck law (Lübeck had the court of ultimate resort) theDanish King Johann and Duke Friedrich I established a new court system.===
1522 Beginning The great tidal wave “De grote Manndränke” claimed more than 100.000 deaths, 34 churches and the city of Reformation Rungholt. After this tragedy, the race for land reclamation started in HusumNorthern Frisia.
1530 Beginning of witch hunt with first burn-up in Kiel,comes to an end in 1734=== 1459 ===
1542 Acceptance of the order Death of Duke Adolf VII. He is the Lutheran Church in Schleswig and Holstein. Founding of state church. Pinneberg and Lauenburgare stragglers. They accept Lutheran order in 1561and 1585 respectively. Church books with sometimes marriage records first and then birth and deaths information are keptlast Schauenburger.
1581 Dithmarschen === 1460 was divided into North- and South Dithmarschen ===
1584 The first known protection Election of Christian I, Duke of Jewish citizens in Altona proclaimedJewish citizens were few in Schleswig-and Earl of Holstein. They were mainlyaccepted in towns and Altona had the greatest contingent. PortugueseJewsPrivilege of Ripen, a promise that the Sephards settle in Glückstadt in the early1600sterritories of Schleswig and Holstein will not be divided any more.
1614 Serfdom accepted by Schleswig-Holstein’s governing forces. === 1465 Serfdom came into being through wealthy landowners buying surrounding land belonging to farmers. With the purchase of their land the farmers had to give their services to the land owner and were bound by the “Schollenband” (no freedom to move). Services given to the wealthy land owners started at 6 years old. The land owner had total control over his serfs, gave permission to marry and was also responsible for his subjects’ conscription.===
1627 The 30 Years War reaches Husum receives the Northstatus of Flecken. Jutland A Flecken is a settlement between the seize of a village and Schleswig-Holsteina town, also known as Blek. Flecken were occupied by Wallenstein’s troops rural villages centrally located. They had guild privileges for journeymen, exemption from military service and by 1629 the land wasdevastated because the soldiers lived of the landright to hold market days.
1643 Swedish-Danish War. The war was instigated by Christian IV, who imposed tariffs. The Swedes saw this as a threat because Denmark interfered their trading with the Netherlands and Hamburg. === 1475 Anew devastation of the land followed===
1650 Around this time Holländer (Dutch citizens) start dairy farming First printing press in Schleswig-HolsteinLübeck
1655 Danish-Swedish War until 1660 when in Denmark Absolutism (the legislative, judicial and executive authority was in the hands of one sovereign) was introduced which spread throughout Europe and ended with the French Revolution, which basically questioned the appointment by divine right. 1688 Abolishment of serfdom starts in Schmoel. By 1805 serfdom was altogether abandoned.=== 1494 ===
1711 Bannmeilenverordnung. To protect the urban tradefrom the rural one, First printing of the authorities put a one-mile ban aroundthe city. Working ones trade was only possible within a certain perimeter. 1720 The Danish crown receives the Gottorf part of Schleswig1721 The Danes get Rantzau 1761 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön becomes Danish Kolonisten (colonizers) arrive Bible in Southern Jutland and Schleswig- Holstein 1769 First census taken in the Duchies controlled by the DanesLübeck
1770 No more use of patronymics in Schleswig by royal decree=== 1496 ===
1773 Duchies Vierstädtegericht (four city courts) In order to get away from Lübeck law (Lübeck had the court of Schleswig and Holstein become permanently Danish, 1815 ultimate resort) the Duchy of Lauenburg also becomes DanishKing Johann and Duke Friedrich I established a new court system.
1798 === 1522 First address book for Lübeck1800 Before this date seamen and adventurers would immigrate, but at the beginning at the 19th century immigration from Schleswig- Holstein would really pick up among the population, peaking in 1880 with 12000 to 14000 people leaving, many via Hamburg starting 1850===
The population starts to choose German as their language rather than DanishBeginning of Reformation in Husum. The German language advances to Flensburg in the first decades
1803 Duchy of Lauenburg occupied by Napoleon=== 1530 ===
1805 Census takenBeginning of witch hunt with first burn-up in Kiel, comes to an end in 1734
1810 === 1542 Principality of Lübeck is occupied by Napoleon I until 1813, after which it becomes part of Oldenburg again===
1811 City Acceptance of Lübeck becomes part the order of France, the Lutheran Church in Schleswig and Holstein. Founding of state church. Pinneberg and Lauenburg tooare stragglers. They accept Lutheran order in 1561 and 1585 respectively. Church books with sometimes marriage records first and then birth and deaths information are kept.
1812 === 1581 Immunization mandatory===
1814 School becomes mandatoryDithmarschen was divided into North- and South Dithmarschen
1815 === 1584 Duchy of Lauenburg becomes Danish===
1819 Steam ship line Caledonia KielThe first known protection of Jewish citizens in Altona proclaimed Jewish citizens were few in Schleswig-Copenhagen opensHolstein. They were mainly accepted in towns and Altona had the greatest contingent. Portuguese Jews, the Sephards settle in Glückstadt in the early 1600s.
1835 Census1840 Census1845 Census=== 1614 ===
1848 Revolt Serfdom accepted by Schleswig-Holstein’s governing forces. Serfdom came into being through wealthy landowners buying surrounding land belonging to farmers. With the purchase of their land the farmers had to give their services to the land owner and were bound by the “Schollenband” (no freedom to move). Services given to the German Schleswig-Holsteiners against Denmark 1855 Census1860 Censuswealthy land owners started at 6 years old. The land owner had total control over his serfs, gave permission to marry and was also responsible for his subjects’ conscription.
1864 After several === 1627 military turmoils Denmark abdicates the three Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. ===
1867 The 30 Years War reaches the North. Jutland and Schleswig-Holstein becomes a Prussian provincewere occupied by Wallenstein’s troops and by 1629 the land was devastated because the soldiers lived off the land.
1874 Civil Registration begins=== 1643 ===
1875 Lauenburg becomes part Swedish-Danish War. The war was instigated by Christian IV, who imposed tariffs. The Swedes saw this as a threat because Denmark interfered their trading with the Netherlands and Hamburg. A new devastation of the Prussian province Schleswig-Holsteinland followed
1890 Helgoland becomes part of Schleswig-Holstein1920 Poll in the area north of Flensburg and south of Tondernto decide whether to remain Danish or become German. === 1650 Approx.¾ of the population opted to be Danish. The border between Denmark and Germany runs just north of Flensburg to this day.===
Around this time Holländer (Dutch citizens) start dairy farming in Schleswig-Holstein
=== 1655 === Danish-Swedish War until 1660 when in Denmark Absolutism (the legislative, judicial and executive authority was in the hands of one sovereign) was introduced which spread throughout Europe and ended with the French Revolution, which basically questioned the appointment by divine right.  === 1688 === Abolishment of serfdom starts in Schmoel. By 1805 serfdom was altogether abandoned.  === 1711 === Bannmeilenverordnung. To protect the urban trade from the rural one, the authorities put a one-mile ban around the city. Working ones trade was only possible within a certain perimeter.  === 1720 === The Danish crown receives the Gottorf part of Schleswig  <br> === 1721 === The Danes get Rantzau, 1761 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön becomes Danish. Kolonisten (colonizers) from&nbsp; Southern Germany arrive in Southern Jutland and Schleswig-Holstein.  === 1769 === First census taken in the Duchies controlled by the Danes  === 1770 === No more use of patronymics in Schleswig by royal decree  === 1773 === Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein become permanently Danish, 1815 the Duchy of Lauenburg also becomes Danish.  === 1798 === First address book for Lübeck  === 1800 === Before this date seamen and adventurers would emigrate, but at the beginning of the 19th century emigration from Schleswig-Holstein would really pick up among the population, peaking in 1880 with 12000 to 14000 people leaving, many via Hamburg starting 1850  The population starts to choose German as their language rather than Danish. The German language advances to Flensburg in the first decades  === 1803 === Duchy of Lauenburg occupied by Napoleon  === 1805 === Census taken  === 1810 === Principality of Lübeck is occupied by Napoleon I until 1813, after which it becomes part of Oldenburg again  === 1811 === City of Lübeck becomes part of France, Lauenburg too  === 1812 === Immunization mandatory  === 1814 === School becomes mandatory  === 1815 === Duchy of Lauenburg becomes Danish  === 1819 === Steam ship line Caledonia Kiel-Copenhagen opens  === 1835 === Census taken  === 1840 === Census taken  === 1845 === Census taken  === 1848 === Revolt of the German Schleswig-Holsteiners against Denmark  === 1855 === Census taken  === 1860 === Census taken  === 1864 === After several military turmoils Denmark abdicates the three Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.  === 1866 === Schleswig-Holstein becomes a Prussian province === 1874 === Civil Registration begins  === 1875 === Lauenburg becomes part of the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein  === 1890 === Helgoland becomes part of Schleswig-Holstein  === 1920 === Poll taken in the area north of Flensburg and south of Tondern to decide whether to remain Danish or become German. Approx. ¾ of the population opted to be Danish. The border between Denmark and Germany runs just north of Flensburg to this day.    === Orts/Dorfchroniken === A good source for local history timelines&nbsp;can be found in village chronicles. These are taking historical developments of specific areas into account, and let the researcher have a glimpse of ancestors' lives from various points of view. Ortschroniken can usually be retrieved through a mayor's office or historical societies. A Google search may assist with availability.    Here is a link providing [http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/search/search.cfm historical developments ]in Germany at any given time period. [[Category:Schleswig-Holstein, GermanyGerman Empire]]
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