'''1775-1783:''' The Indians of eastern North America were drawn to both sides of the '''American Revolution'''. The colonists made efforts to secure neutrality a bit unsuccessful as the Indians reasoned that an American victory would result in more settlers moving into their lands. The Oneida Indians were the largest group to support the American cause. The American colonists did borrow some military methods from the Indians: fighting from cover, camouflage, ambush, harassment, and other guerrilla tactics.
'''1778:''' The Delaware Indians became the first tribe to sign a treaty with the United States, at Fort Pitt (Pittsburg) on September 17
'''1779: '''General John Sullivan and 4,000 troops were sent to neutralize the Iroquois Confederacy tribes who were aiding the British in western Pennsylvania and New York. Forty Indian towns were burned and one hundred sixty thousand bushels of corn and other crops were destroyed. The Iroquois Confederacy never recovered.
'''1783:''' The purchase of land from Indians by a private person without the permission of the U.S. Congress was prohibited in a Congressional proclamation September 22
'''1783:''' The Mohawk Indian Chief Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea) who fought with the British during the American Revolution, led a group of people to Ontario, Canada, where they were given a tract of land to settle six miles wide on each side of the Grand River.
'''1787: '''Article 1, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, the federal government reserved the power: "to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes..."
'''1805:''' Sacajawea, a Lemhi Shoshoni Indian woman guided the Lewis and Clark expedition.
'''1824:''' [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|'''The Office of Indian Affairs''']] (later renamed Bureau of Indian Affairs) was created by Secretary of War John C. Calhoun under his department Thomas L. McKenney was appointed to head the office.
'''1830: [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=004/llsl004.db&recNum=458 Indian Removal Act] '''passed by Congress, authorizing the removal of Indians in the eastern United States to be removed to land west of the Mississippi River.
'''1834: '''the U.S. ''Department of Indian Affairs ''was created.
'''1834:''' Indian territory was defined by Congress as "all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas, and also
, that part of the United States east of the Mississippi River, and not within any state to which the Indian title has not been extinguished."
'''1840: '''A Four Nation alliance among the Cheyenne, Kiowa, Arapaho, and Comanche Indians of the western plains of North America was formed at a council on the Arkansas River. The offensive-defensive agreement was never to be broken.
'''1870:''' U.S. President U.S. Grant gave control of the Indian agencies to various Christian denominations after the U.S. Congress had passed a law prohibiting army officers from holding a post of Indian agent.
'''1871:''' Treaty -Making between Indians Tribes and the U.S. government ended
, by Congress.
'''1875:''' '''The Indian Homestead Act '''extended the benefits of the General
homestead Act of 1862 to Indian heads of families over twenty-one years of age who had abandoned or would abandon their tribal relations.
'''1878:''' The Congress approved funds for a American Indian police force.
'''1919:''' (November 6,) By an act of Congress, Indian men who enlisted to fight for the United States in '''World War I''' could become citizens.
'''1924: '''(Curtis Bill, June 2,) '''Citizenship '''conferred
an all non-citizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the U.S. The act preserved the tribal rights of the individual Indians and gave them in effect a dual citizenship.
'''1929''': Charles Curtis, of Osage and Kaw Indian descent began his term as vice-president of the U.S., serving with President Hoover until 1933.
'''1934:''' The Wheeler-Howard '''[[Indian Reorganization Act|Indian Reorganization Act]] '''passed by Congress
'''1934-39: '''The New Deal on many reservations under the Civilian Conservation Corps
, tribal herds of deer, buffalo, elk, and antelope developed under this program , continued into the 1970's.
'''1945: '''World War II
, more than twenty-five thousand Indian men and women served in the armed forces.
'''1946: '''The U.S. Indian Claims Commission was established.
'''1947: '''(February) A '''Termination''' timetable listing Indian tribes that might be severed from federal supervision was submitted to the U.S. Congress by William Zimmerman
commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Flathead, Hoopa, Klamath, Menominee, Mission, Six Nations, Osage, Potawatomi, Sacramento and Turtle Mountain tribes, totaling forty thousand Indians, were listed as ready for termination in 1947.
'''1948:'''(May 14,) '''Indian Land Sales Act '''(U.S. Public Law 80-529)
'''1955: '''(July) '''Indian Health Services '''were transferred from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Public Health Service .
'''1957:''' (March 1,) The '''Termination''' of U.S. federal supervision and services to 260 Shivwits, Koosharem, Indian Peaks and Kanosh bands of the Paiute Indians of Utah became effective.
There was a general recognition that the Native Americans had “title” (pre-emption rights or rights of first occupation) to the land. Efforts were made to “extinguish” those property rights by purchase and by treaty. Treaties included stipulations for the payment of benefits in exchange for the surrender of the property rights. Provision was sometimes made to reserve areas for hunting, fishing and burial. Later treaties also provided for the removal of the Native Americans from their home lands to unsettled areas and/or reservations.
From 1795 to 1822, the official policy was to trade with the Indians through
“factories,” or government owned trading houses. More than 20 such [[American Indian Factory Records|factories]] were established and records were kept by them.
, most of the American Indians, by policy of the federal government (and in a few instances , state governments), were confined to reservations.
With the passage of the [[Indian Reorganization Act|Indian Reorganization Act]] (also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) in 1934, American Indian Tribes set up their own tribal governments. Many of these tribal governments began recording vital records, [[American Indian Enrollment Records|tribal enrollment records]] and other records of value to genealogists.