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Text replacement - "One unique collection is the Gail Morin who donated her '''40,000 name data base''' to the archive in 2011. The data base is ancestral quest format and all in families with sources. " to "One unique collection is the Gail Morin database. The collection consists of a database of 65,434 records of persons who were Metis ancestors. For each individual, dates and places of birth, baptism, marriage, death, and burial, and notes on sources are given if known. Using Ancestral Que...
{{MN-sidebar}}{{breadcrumb| link1=[[United States Genealogy|United States]] | link2=[[Image:Gotoarrow.pngIndigenous Peoples of the United States Genealogy|Indigenous Peoples of the United States Research]]| link3=[[Minnesota , United States Genealogy|Minnesota]] | link4=| link5=[[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy]Indigenous Peoples of Minnesota] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] Indians of Minnesota }}
{| style="float:right; margin-right:200px"|-| style="padding-right:0px"||[[Image:Chippewa-One-Called-From-A-Distance(Midwewinind)-White Earth Reservation, MN-1894-NO.-014a.jpg|right|400px|Chippewa-One-Called-From-A-Distance(Midwewinind)-White Earth Reservation, MN-1894-NO.-014a.jpg]] |}
The word Minnesota comes from a Dakota Indian word meaning "sky-tinted water" === Online Resources ===
Two major *[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=4184 Minnesota Native American tribes—the Dakota Americans, 1823], (or $), index *[[Sioux Indians|Sioux]http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=4232 Minnesota Native Americans, 1851], ($) and the , index *[[Ojibwa Indians|Ojibwa]http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=2339 Minnesota, Indian Allotment Records, 1888-1919] , (Anishinabe or Chippewa$)—lived in the area that is now Minnesota. Small groups from other tribes now also reside in the state, including the free index<br><br>*[[Winnebago Indians|Winnebago]http://www.ironrangeresearchcenter.org/search/ Iron Range Research Center], who once had reservation land there. By the late 1860s treaties had pushed the Indians off lands they had occupied and moved them onto reservations. index
Many American Indians still live on reservations in === Introduction ===The word Minnesota. Seven Ojibwa reservations are located in the northern part of the state, and four comes from a Dakota communities occupy lands in the southern part. Other American Indians reside in urban areas. More than 9,000 people of Ojibwa ancestry live in Minneapolis, and about 3,000 Ojibwa, Dakota, and Winnebago are in St. Paul. There are smaller groups of American Indian people in Duluth and Bemidji. word meaning "sky-tinted water"
== Tribes Two major Native American tribes—the Dakota (or [[Sioux Indians|Sioux]]) and Bands of the [[Ojibwa Indians|Ojibwa]] (Anishinabe or Chippewa)—lived in the area that is now Minnesota ==. Small groups from other tribes now also reside in the state, including the [[Winnebago Indians|Winnebago]], who once had reservation land there. By the late 1860s treaties had pushed the Native Americans off lands they had occupied and moved them onto reservations.
Many Native Americans still live on reservations in Minnesota. Seven Ojibwa reservations are located in the northern part of the state, and four Dakota communities occupy lands in the southern part. Other Native Americans reside in urban areas. More than 9,000 people of Ojibwa ancestry live in Minneapolis, and about 3,000 Ojibwa, Dakota, and Winnebago are in St. Paul. There are smaller groups of indigenous people in Duluth and Bemidji.  === Tribes and Bands of Minnesota === The following list of American Indians Native Americans who have lived in Minnesota has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico I . Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [httphttps://wwwarchive.accessgenealogy.comorg/nativedetails/handbook_american_indians.htm handbookamindians02hodgrich Available online] [httphttps://wwwarchive.accessgenealogy.comorg/nativedetails/handbook_american_indians.htm handbookamindians02hodgrich Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. I;''The Indian Tribes of North America.'' Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm Available online] [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
*[[Arapaho Indians|Arapaho Indians]]
=== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs ===
Agencies and sub agencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. '''Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices. '''
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library IMG class=FCK__MWTemplate src="https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/extensions/FCKeditor/fckeditor/editor/images/spacer.gif" width=1 height=1 </ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL IMG class=FCK__MWTemplate src="https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/extensions/FCKeditor/fckeditor/editor/images/spacer.gif")</ref>, and others.
*[[Birch Cooley Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Birch Cooley Indian Agency]] (Minnesota)<br>
*[[St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)|St. Peters Indian Agency ]](Minnesota)-- part of St. Peters Agency
*[[Milk River Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Milk River Indian Agency ]](Minnesota)<br>
*[[Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Minnesota Indian Agency ]](Minnesota) Route 3, P.O. Box 112, Cass Lake, MN 56633
*[[Nett Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Nett Lake Indian Agency ]](Minnesota)
*[[Pipestone Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Pipestone Indian Agency ]](Minnesota)
*[[Winnebago Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Winnebago Indian Agency ]](Minnesota)
*[[Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Minnesota Superintendency ]]1849-1856<br>
 
=== Records ===
 
The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
 
*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
 
===Allotment Records===
 
Allotted Tribes of Minnesota
 
•Bois Fort, Cass Lake, Deer Creek Reservation, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Lake Winbigoshish, Leech Lake, Mdewakanton, Mille Lacs Reservation, White Earth, White Oak Point and Chippewa Reservation, Winnebago
•Fort Totten (Sioux), Nett Lake (Chippewa)
 
=== Indian Schools ===
The Office of Indian Affairs now the Bureau of Indian Affairs established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which that served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])
*[[Squaw Point Day School (Minnesota)|Squaw Point Day School]] (Minnesota)
*[[Vermillion Lake Indian School (Minnesota)|Vermillion Lake School]]
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) Mission Stations 1830-1840: Lac qui Aprle, Traverse des Sioux, Shakopee's Village, Oak Grove, Mendota, Little Crow's Village, and red Wing's Village in Minnesota.
=== Other Repositories ===
=== Family History Library ===
The Family History Library has many Native American Indian records from the National Archives - Central Plains Region (Kansas City, Missouri). For the Ojibwa, for instance, microfilms of census, vital, land, and family records are available from 1876 to 1955. Additional sources are at the Minnesota Historical Society Library, including:
*''Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856. M842. ''There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with 1618093 {{FHL|403560|item|disp=FHL Film 1618093 to 1618101}} <br>
*Powell, Ransom Judd. Papers, Undated and 1843, 1896–1938. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1987. No circulation to Family History Centers. Papers include genealogies, censuses, correspondence, and other records collected by the lawyer for lumber companies that bought White Earth Reservation land. <br>A research study of one Ojibwa family from Minnesota’s White Earth reservation is in:
*Byers, Paula K., ed. Native American Genealogical Sourcebook. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1995. It includes chapters on historical background, research methods and sources, and libraries and archives holding genealogical information on American IndiansNative Americans. The case study reported on pages 54–64 uses records mostly dating between 1885 and 1915 to trace ancestors and descendants of one Ojibwa family. Records used include Indian censuses, United States censuses, Chippewa Commission and Chippewa Agency records, and the Ransom Judd Powell papers. A bibliography of sources for further study on Minnesota Indians is provided. <br>Other books include:
*Ebbott, Elizabeth. Indians in Minnesota. 4th ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. Sponsored by the League of Women Voters of Minnesota, this book deals mainly with social strengths and economic problems of American Indians in modern-day Minnesota. Preliminary chapters give histories of major Indian groups in the state and shifting government policies toward them. Includes maps and tables showing the locations of Indian groups on and off reservations in 1980. <br> Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul, Minnesota). Chippewa and Dakota Indians: A Subject Catalog of Books, Pamphlets, Periodical Articles, and Manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical Society. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1969. A list of printed and manuscript sources on Minnesota’s two major tribes. Much new material has been added to the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society since this book was published. <br>See also the chapter on "The Dakota and Ojibwa" in They Chose Minnesota, described in the "Minorities" article. For sources on the Sioux War of 1862, see the "Military Records" article. Steps to effective research are listed in the "United States Native Races" article. {{FHL|358958|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 Eb17i}}
=== Reservations ===
From the mid-1800s1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
*Vermilion Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota) 1881
*[[Upper Sioux Indian Community, Minnesota|Upper Sioux Reservation]]: Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
*Wabasha Reservation:in [[Wabasha County, MinnesotaGenealogy|Wabasha County]], Minnesota<br>
*[[White Earth Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|White Earth Indian Reservation ]](Minnesota) under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
*[[White Oak Point Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|White Oak Point Indian Reservation ]](Minnesota)<br>
*Winnebago Reservation 1846-1855 ([[Houston County, MinnesotaGenealogy|Houston County]]) === Archives, Libraries, and Museums === Glenbow Archive, Library, and Museum  The Glenbow Archives and Library, has an excellent collection of resources for the study of Métis genealogy. Their sources cover predominantly [[First Nations of Manitoba|Manitoba]], [[First Nations of Saskatchewan|Saskatchewan]], [[First Nations of Alberta|Alberta]], and some parts of the [[First Nations of Northwest Territories|Northwest Territories]], [[First Nations of Ontario|Ontario]], and [[First Nations of British Columbia|British Columbia]].  Most of our sources pertain to people who were living in the Prairie Provinces in 1900 or earlier.  One unique collection is the Gail Morin database. The collection consists of a database of 65,434 records of persons who were Metis ancestors. For each individual, dates and places of birth, baptism, marriage, death, and burial, and notes on sources are given if known. Using Ancestral Quest software, the data can be linked to show genealogical relationships in the form of pedigree charts and descendancy charts. The database is available only with the assistance of the Archives staff in the reading room of the Glenbow Archives. The database is fully searchable online. Contact: Glenbow Archives<br> 130 - 9 Avenue<br> SE Calgary, Alberta T2G 0P3<br> Reference Desk telephone: 403-268-4204 <br> Email: [http://www.glenbow.org/collections/archives/genealogy/ archives@glenbow.org]
=== '''See Also''' ===
[[Minnesota History|Minnesota - History]] for a calendar that includes dates of importance to the Indians of Minnesota [[Minnesota Military Records|Minnesota - MilitaryMinnesotaMilitary Records]] for a list of forts
=== References ===
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [httphttps://wwwarchive.accessgenealogy.comorg/nativedetails/handbook_american_indians.htm handbookamindians02hodgrich Available online].
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/MN.pdf Available online].
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm Available online].
[[Category:Indigenous Tribes of Minnesota]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_StatesIndigenous Tribes of the United States]][[Category:Minnesota Cultural Groups]]
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