Panama Canal Zone

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The Canal Zone was not a "territory" of the United States in the typical sense. From 1903-1936 the Panama Canal Zone was controlled by the U.S. government under the terms of the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty. The 1936 Hull-Alfaro Treaty, ratified by the US Senate in 1939, indicated the Canal Zone was the "territory of the Republic of Panama under the jurisdiction of the United States of America."[1] From 1979-1999, after the Torrijos-Carter treaties were signed, it was jointly administered by the United States and Panama.[2] Four United States federal censuses, as well as a special Canal Zone census were taken in the Panama Canal Zone.[3] See Panama Canal Zone Census. For more in-depth research in Panama, see the Panama article.

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  1. "Controlling the Canal," PBS Online NewsHour ( accessed 2 May 2010).
  2. "Panama Canal Zone," Wikipedia ( accessed 18 August 2008).
  3. "Panama Canal Zone Records," FamilySearch Wiki ( Canal Zone Records : accessed 18 August 2008).