Pakistan Languages

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The national or official languages of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are: Urdu, Sindhi, English. The literacy rate in Pakistan is roughly 26 percent. The languages covered also include Indian Sign Language, Parsi (20,000), Southern Uzbek (50,000), Turkmen, Uyghur, Arabic (122,000), Chinese (6,000). The number of languages listed for Pakistan is 72. Of those, all are living languages.

Living languages[edit | edit source]

Aer[edit | edit source]

[aeq] 100 to 200: Women are monolingual. Lower Sindh, Jikrio Goth near Kunri around Deh 333, Hyderabad, and at Jamesabad. Others are reported to have migrated to India at Partition in 1947, living in the Kach Bhuj area in Gujarat. Dialects: Jikrio Goth Aer, Jamesabad Aer.

Badeshi[edit | edit source]

[bdz] Ethnic population: 2,825: Upper reaches of Bishigram (Chail) Valley, east of Madyan, Swat Kohistan. One village.

Bagri[edit | edit source]

[bgq] 200,000 in Pakistan; 100,000 in Sind Province: In the Sindh and Punjab. Alternate names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Baorias, Bahgri, Bawri.

Balochi, Eastern[edit | edit source]

[bgp] 1,800,000 in Pakistan; 5,000,000 including second-language users of all Balochi languages: Population total all countries: 1,805,000. Northeastern Balochistan Province, northwestern Sind, southwestern Punjab. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Baluchi, Baluci, Baloci.

Balochi, Southern[edit | edit source]

[bcc] 2,765,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 3,400,300. Southern Balochistan, southern Sind, Karachi. Also spoken in Iran, Oman, United Arab Emirates. Alternate names: Baluchi, Baluci, Baloci, Makrani.  Dialects: Coastal Balochi, Kechi, Makrani (Lotuni). Distinct from Eastern Balochi and fairly distinct from Western Balochi.

Balochi, Western[edit | edit source]

[bgn] 1,116,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 1,799,842. Northwestern Balochistan Province. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. Alternate names: Baluchi, Baloci, Baluci.  Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Strongly influenced by Fars, but not intelligible with Farsi.

Balti[edit | edit source]

[bft] 270,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 337,000. Primarily northeastern Pakistan: Baltistan District, Skardu, Rondu, Shigar, Khapalu, Kharmang, and Gultari valleys. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Sbalti, Baltistani, Bhotia of Baltistan.  Dialects: Chorbat is the most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity 87% to 100% among dialects, 78% to 85% with Purik.

Bateri[edit | edit source]

[btv] 28,251 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 29,051. Extreme southern corner, Kohistan District, small pocket on the east bank of the Indus River, north of Besham; Batera area. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Bateri Kohistani, Batera Kohistani, Baterawal, Baterawal Kohistani.  Dialects: Closer to Indus Kohistani than to Shina, but distinct from both. Lexical similarity 58% to 61% with Indus Kohistani, 60% with Gowro, 54% with Chilisso, 29% with Shina and Torwali, 27% with Kalami.

Bhaya[edit | edit source]

[bhe] 70 to 700 in Lower Sindh: Kapri Goth near Samaro, near Khipro, Jamesabad, Mir ke goth, Mirpurkhas, Phuladia, a few families in Hyderabad. There may be more in India. Dialects: Similarity of key morphemes: The possessive postposition with 'g-' contrasts with all other languages in the area. Gender endings match Rajasthani. This might be the same as Bhoyari in India. It may be in the Western Hindi group. Lexical similarity 84% with Marwari sweeper, 75% with Malhi, 73% with Bhat, 72% to 73% with Goaria, 70% to 73% with Sindhi Meghwar, 63% to 72% with Mogi, 63% to 71% with Sindhi Bhil, 70% with Urdu.

Brahui[edit | edit source]

[brh] 2,000,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 2,210,000. South central, Quetta and Kalat Region, east Baluchistan and Sind provinces. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan. Alternate names: Brahuidi, Birahui, Brahuigi, Kur Galli.  Dialects: Jharawan, Kalat, Sarawan. Kalat is the standard dialect, Jharawan is lowland.

Burushaski[edit | edit source]

[bsk] 87,049 in Pakistan: Hunza-Nagar area and Yasin area in Gilgit District, Northern Areas. Scattered speakers also in Gilgit, Kashmir, and various cities. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Brushaski, Burushaki, Burucaki, Burushki, Burucaski, Biltum, Khajuna, Kunjut.  Dialects: Nagar (Nagir), Hunza, Yasin (Werchikwar). Yasin is geographically separated from other dialects. Lexical similarity 91% to 94% between Nagar and Hunza dialects, 67% to 72% between Yasin and Hunza, 66% to 71% between Yasin and Nagar, and may be a separate language.

Chilisso[edit | edit source]

[clh] 1,600 to 3,000: Scattered families in the Koli, Palas, Jalkot area of the Indus Kohistan, east bank of the Indus River. Alternate names: Chiliss, Galos.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Indus Kohistani, 65% to 68% with Gowro, 54% with Bateri, 48% to 56% with Shina. 26% with Torwali, 25% with Kalami.

Dameli[edit | edit source]

[dml] 5,000: In the Damel Valley, about 32 miles south of Drosh in southern Chitral District, on the east side of the Kunar River. 11 villages. Alternate names: Damel, Damedi, Damia, Gudoji.  Dialects: Two groups: Shintari and Swati, but no significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity 44% with Gawar-Bati, Savi, and Phalura, 33% with Kamviiri, 29% with Kati.

Dehwari[edit | edit source]

[deh] 13,000: Central Balochistan, in Kalat and Mastung. Alternate names: Deghwari.

Dhatki[edit | edit source]

[mki] 131,863 in Pakistan: Population includes 100,000 in Sind (1987). Population total all countries: 148,263. Lower Sind in Tharparkar and Sanghar districts. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Dhati.  Dialects: Eastern Dhatki, Southern Dhatki, Central Dhatki, Barage, Malhi. Varies considerably from northern Marwari, although they claim to understand one another. The Malhi are an ethnic group living in 3 main areas. Those in the Kunri-Pithoro-Noakot-Mithi area speak a dialect with 80% lexical similarity to Dhatki, 74% to Sindhi, and work as water-drawers. Lexical similarity 80% to 83% with Marwari dialects. Dhatki of Rajasthan and Dhatki of Thar are 88% lexically similar.

Domaaki[edit | edit source]

[dmk] ca. 350 (2004). Gilgit District, Northern Areas, mainly in the Hunza and Nager Valleys: Mominabad village (Hunza), Domyaal village (Nagar), Shishkat (Gojal); but also in Gilgit Town, Oshikandas and Danyor (both east of Gilgit). Alternate names: Dumaki, Domaá. Dialects: Nager-Domaaki (ca. 50 speakers) and Hunza Domaaki (ca. 300 speakers). Domaaki has many loanwords from Shina and Burushaski, but is not intelligible to speakers of those languages.

English[edit | edit source]

[eng] Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

Farsi, Eastern[edit | edit source]

[prs] 1,000,000 in Pakistan; 1,400 in Madaglasht, and many refugees: Southeast Chitral, Madaglasht village of Shishi Koh Valley, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi, other large cities. Alternate names: Dari, Tajik, Madaglashti, Badakhshi.

Gawar-Bati[edit | edit source]

[gwt] 1,500 in Pakistan: Southern Chitral, Arandu, and several villages along the Kunar River south of Arandu. Alternate names: Gowar-Bati, Gowari, Arandui, Satre, Narsati, Narisati.

Ghera[edit | edit source]

[ghr] 10,000: A single colony in Hyderabad, between the main bus stop and the railway station. Speakers say more than 90% of the people remained in Surat and Ahmedabad, India. Alternate names: Sindhi Ghera, Bara.  Dialects: Quite different grammatically from Gurgula and similar to Urdu. Lexical similarity 87% with Gurgula, 70% with Urdu.

Goaria[edit | edit source]

[gig] 25,426: All towns in Sindh Province except Karachi: including Larkana, Sukkur, Moro, Badin, Umerkot. They claim to have come from Jodhpur Rajasthan, India, where there may be more. Dialects: This might be the same as Gawari in India. Lexical similarity 75% to 83% with Jogi, 76% to 80% with Marwari sweeper, 72% to 78% with Marwari Meghwar, 70% to 78% with Loarki.

Gowro[edit | edit source]

[gwf] 200 (1990). Indus Kohistan on the eastern bank, Kolai area, Mahrin village. Alternate names: Gabaro, Gabar Khel.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 65% to 68% with Chilisso, 62% with Indus Kohistani, 60% with Bateri, 40% to 43% with Shina, 25% with Torwali, 24% with Kalami.

Gujarati[edit | edit source]

[guj]  Lower Punjab, Sindh.

Gujari[edit | edit source]

[gju] 300,000 in Pakistan (1992). Population includes 2,910 in Chitral (1969), 20,000 in Swat Kohistan (1987), 200,000 to 700,000 in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (1989). Throughout northern Pakistan, mainly in the east in Hazara District, NWFP, in Kaghan Valley, Azad Jammu, and Kashmir. Scattered communities in southern Chitral, Swat Kohistan, and Dir Kohistan, NWFP, and Gilgit Agency, Northern Areas. Alternate names: Gujuri, Gujuri Rajasthani, Gujer, Gojri, Gogri, Gojari, Gujjari, Kashmir Gujuri.  Dialects: Western Gujari, Eastern Gujari.

Gurgula[edit | edit source]

[ggg] 35,314: Sindh Province, largest concentration in Bhens Colony, Karachi, others in smaller urban centers through Sindh, including Mirpur Khas, Shahdadpur, Panj, Moro, Sabura and Tando Allahyar. Alternate names: Marwari Ghera.  Dialects: Ghera is quite different gramatically. Lexical similarity 87% with Ghera.

Hazaragi[edit | edit source]

[haz] 156,794 in Pakistan: Population includes many recent refugees from Afghanistan. Quetta (100,000 to 200,000), Karachi and Islamabad (10,000), some villages in rural Sindh. Alternate names: Azargi, Hazara, Hezareh.

Hindko, Northern[edit | edit source]

[hno] 1,875,000: Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,000,000 (1993). Hazara Division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts, Indus and Kaghan valleys and valleys of Indus tributaries, NWFP. Rural and urban. Alternate names: Hazara Hindko, Hindki, Kaghani, Kagani.  Dialects: Also related to Panjabi, Siraiki, and Pahari-Potwari; which have all been called 'Greater Panjabi', forming part of 'Lahnda'. Lexical similarities within Northern Hindko dialects are 82% to 92%, between Northern and Southern Hindko varieties 67% to 82%.

Hindko, Southern[edit | edit source]

[hnd] 625,000: Attock District, Punjab Province, and into the southernmost portion of Hazara Division, NWFP; Kohat and Peshawar districts, NWFP. Rural and urban. Dialects: Peshawar Hindko (Peshawari), Attock Hindko (Attock-Haripur Hindko), Kohat Hindko (Kohati), Rural Peshawar Hindko. The dialect in Dera Ismail Khan, sometimes called 'Hindko', is apparently closer to Siraiki.

Jadgali[edit | edit source]

[jdg] 100,000 in Pakistan: Southeast Balochistan Province, southwest Sind. Also spoken in Iran. Alternate names: Jatgali, Jatki, Jat.

Jandavra[edit | edit source]

[jnd] 5,000: Southern Sindh Province from Hyderabad to east of Mirpur Khas. Reported to be many more in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Alternate names: Jhandoria.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 74% with Bagri and Katai Meghwar, 68% with Kachi Koli.

Kabutra[edit | edit source]

[kbu] 1,000: Sindh, some concentrations around Umerkot, Kunri, and Nara Dhoro. Speakers say that 90% of the people remain in the Zal area of Marwar, India. Alternate names: Nat, Natra.  Dialects: Speakers report they have inherent intelligibility of Sansi and Sochi, and use Kabutra when speaking to them. Lexical similarity 74% with the Sochi language variety.

Kachchi[edit | edit source]

[kfr] 50,000 in Pakistan: Karachi. Alternate names: Kachchhi, Kutchchi, Cuchi, Cutch, Kutchie, Kachi, Katch, Kautchy, Katchi.  Dialects: Jadeji.

Kalami[edit | edit source]

[gwc] 40,000: Upper Swat Kohistan from between Peshmal and Kalam north to upper valleys above Kalam, also in Dir Kohistan, in Thal, Lamuti (Kinolam), Biar (Jiar), and Rajkot (Patrak) villages. People at Khata Khotan, China, are reported to be related, recognized by their clothing and language. Alternate names: Garwi, Gawri, Gowri, Garwa, Gaawro, Kalami Kohistani, Kohistani, Kohistana, Bashkarik, Bashgharik, Dir Kohistani, Diri, Dirwali.  Dialects: Kalam, Ushu, Thal, Lamuti (Lamti), Rajkoti (Patrak), Dashwa. Dialect differences do not hinder communication, except that speakers of other dialects have difficulty with Rajkot. Lexical similarity 90% to 93% among the main dialects; Rajkoti has 75% with Kalam; Dashwa has 77% with Kalami, and 74% with Rajkoti.

Kalasha[edit | edit source]

[kls] 5,029: Southern Chitral District. The largest village is Balanguru in Rumbur Valley. Southern Kalasha is in Urtsun Valley; Northern Kalasha in Rumbur, Bumboret, and Birir valleys. Alternate names: Kalashamon, Kalash.  Dialects: Southern Kalasha (Urtsun), Northern Kalasha (Rumbur, Bumboret, Birir). There may be an eastern dialect on the east side of the Chitral River south of Drosh. Related to Khowar. Little contact between Northern and Southern dialects. The southern dialect has 75% lexical similarity with the northern dialects.

Kalkoti[edit | edit source]

[xka] 4,000: Dir Kohistan, NWFP, in Kalkot village. A little more than half the people in the village are speakers. Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Kalami.

Kamviri[edit | edit source]

[xvi] 1,500 to 2,000 in Pakistan plus refugees: Southern Chitral District, Langorbat or Lamerot, Badrugal, and the Urtsun Valley. Alternate names: Kamdeshi, Kamik, Lamertiviri, Shekhani.  Dialects: Kamviri, Shekhani.

Kashmiri[edit | edit source]

[kas] 105,000 in Pakistan: Jammu and Kashmir, south of Shina. Alternate names: Kaschemiri, Kacmiri, Keshuri, Cashmiri, Cashmeeree.

Kati[edit | edit source]

[bsh] 3,700 to 5,100 Eastern Kativiri in Pakistan: Eastern Kativiri is in the Chitral District; in Gobar in the Lutkuh Valley, Kunisht in the Rumbur Valley, Shekhanan Deh in the Bumboret Valley, and in the Urtsun Valley. Alternate names: Kativiri, Bashgali, Nuristani.  Dialects: Eastern Kativiri (Shekhani), Western Kativiri, Mumviri.

Khetrani[edit | edit source]

[xhe] 4,000 in Northeast Balochistan Province: Dialects: Related to Siraiki.

Khowar[edit | edit source]

[khw] 222,800 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 242,000. Chitral; Shandur Pass to Fupis in Ghizr Valley, Yasin and Ishkhoman valleys in Gilgit Agency, Ushu in northern Swat Valley, and large communities in Peshawar and Rawalpindi. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Khawar, Chitrali, Citrali, Chitrari, Arniya, Patu, Qashqari, Kashkari.  Dialects: North Khowar, South Khowar, East Khowar, Swat Khowar. The northern dialect is considered to be more 'pure'. Related to Kalasha, but different. Lexical similarity 86% to 98% among dialects.

Kohistani, Indus[edit | edit source]

[mvy] 220,000: Indus Kohistan District on the western bank of the Indus River. Alternate names: Kohistani, Kohiste, Khili, Maiyon, Mair, Maiyã, Shuthun.  Dialects: Indus (Mani, Seo, Pattan, Jijal), Duber-Kandia (Manzari, Khili). A separate language from nearby varieties (Bateri, Chilisso, Gowro, Shina, Torwali, Kalami). The names 'Mani' and 'Manzari' are not used by speakers for the dialects, but refer to legendary brothers whose descendants settled in the two dialect areas. Lexical similarity 90% among dialects, 70% with Chilisso, 61% with Gowro, 58% with Bateri, 49% with Shina, 28% with Kalami and Torwali.

Koli, Kachi[edit | edit source]

[gjk] 170,000 in Pakistan: Population includes 80,000 to 100,000 Kachi Koli, 5,000 to 6,000 Rabari, 10,000 Kachi Bhil, 50,000 Vagri, 10,000 Katai Meghwar, 1,000 Zalavaria Koli. Population total all countries: 570,000. Lower Sindh in an area bordered by Sakrand and Nawabshah in the north, Matli in the south, and east beyond Mirpur Khas and Jamesabad. Concentrated in an area around the towns of Tando Allahyar and Tando Adam. There may be an equal number in India, concentrated in their ancestral homeland centered around Bhuj, in the Rann of Kach, Gujarat. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Kuchi, Kachi, Katchi, Koli, Kohli, Kolhi, Kori, Vagari, Vagaria, Kachi Gujarati.  Dialects: Kachi, Rabari (Rahabari), Kachi Bhil, Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Katai Meghwar, Zalavaria Koli. Intermediate between Sindhi and Gujarati; it is becoming more like Sindhi. Kachi has 89% lexical similarity with Rabari, 96% with Kachi Bhil, 86% with Vagri, 92% with Katai Meghwar, 88% with Zalavaria Koli, lexical similarity 78% with Gujarati, 76% with Tharadari Koli.

Koli, Parkari[edit | edit source]

[kvx] 250,000: Centered in Tharparkar District, especially the town of Nagar Parkar in the southeastern tip of Sindh bordering India. It covers most of the lower Thar Desert and west as far as the Indus River, bordered in the north and west by Hyderabad, and down to the south and west of Badin. An unknown (probably small) population in India. Alternate names: Parkari.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 77% to 83% with Marwari Bhil, 83% with Tharadari Koli.

Koli, Wadiyara[edit | edit source]

[kxp] 175,000 in Pakistan: Population includes 75,000 Wadiyara, 5,000 Mewasi and Nairya, 30,000 Tharadari, 45,000 Hasoria, 20,000 Rardro. Sind in an area bounded by Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar and Mirpur Khas in the north, and Matli and Jamesabad in the south. Alternate names: Wadaria, Wadhiara.  Dialects: Mewasi (Mayvasi Koli), Wadiyara Koli, Nairya Koli, Tharadari Koli, Tharadari Bhil, Hasoria Koli, Hasoria Bhil, Rardro Bhil.

Lasi[edit | edit source]

[lss] 15,000 in southeast Balochistan Province: Las Bela District, about 80 miles north northwest of Karachi. Alternate names: Lassi.

Loarki[edit | edit source]

[lrk] 20,000 in Sindh Province, rural; 500 to 750 in India: Dialects: Probably the same as Gade Lohar in Rajasthan, India, a Rajasthani language. Lexical similarity 82% with Jogi, 80% with Marwari.

Marwari[edit | edit source]

[rwr] in eastern upper Sindh Province.

Marwari[edit | edit source]

[mve] 220,000: Population includes 100,000 Northern Marwari, 120,000 or more Southern Marwari (1998). The latter includes 100,000 Marwari Bhil, 10,000 Marwari Meghwar, 12,000 to 13,000 Marwari Bhat. Northern Marwari: South Punjab and northern Sindh, north of Dadu and Nawabshah; Southern Marwari: Sindh and southern Punjab provinces, between Tando Mohammed Khan and Tando Ghulam Ali to the south, Dadu and Nawabshab to the north. Alternate names: Merwari, Rajasthani, Marwari Meghwar, Jaiselmer, Marawar, Marwari Bhil.  Dialects: Northern Marwari, Southern Marwari, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Marwari Bhat. Northern and Southern Marwari are inherently intelligible to speakers. Lexical similarity 79% to 83% with Dhatki, 87% between Southern and Northern Marwari, 78% with Marwari Meghwar and Marwari Bhat.

Memoni[edit | edit source]

[mby] in Karachi: Dialects: Memoni language appears to have similarities to Sindhi and Gujarati.

Od[edit | edit source]

[odk] 50,000: Widely scattered in the Sindh and a few in southern Punjab. May also be in Rajasthan, India. Alternate names: Oad, Odki.  Dialects: Resembles Marathi with Gujarati features and borrowings from Marwari and Panjabi. Lexical similarity 86% to 88% among dialects in Dadu, Shikarpur, and Pithoro, 70% to 78% with Marwari, Dhatki, and Bagri.

Ormuri[edit | edit source]

[oru] 1,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 1,050. Kaniguram, a pocket in Mahsud Pashto area northwest of Dera Ismail Khan, Wazirstan. Also spoken in Afghanistan. Alternate names: Urmuri, Ormur, Ormui, Bargista, Baraks, Baraki.  Dialects: Kanigurami, Logar. Lexical similarity 27% with Waneci, 25% to 33% with Pashto dialects.

Pahari-Potwari[edit | edit source]

[phr] 49,440: Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Azad Kashmir. To the north in the lower half of the Neelum Valley. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Punchhi and Chibhali are reported to be in Jammu and Kashmir. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali.  Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Mirpuri. Pahari means 'hill language' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called 'Hindko' in Mansehra, Muzzaffarabad, and Jammun.

Pakistan Sign Language[edit | edit source]

[pks] Alternate names: Isharon Ki Zubann.  Dialects: Related to Nepalese Sign Language; may be the same language as Indian Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language

Panjabi, Western[edit | edit source]

[pnb] 60,647,207 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 60,812,093. Mainly in the Punjab area of Pakistan. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Canada, India, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA. Alternate names: Western Punjabi, Lahnda, Lahanda, Lahndi.  Dialects: There is a continuum of varieties between Eastern and Western Panjabi, and with Western Hindi and Urdu. 'Lahnda' is a name given earlier for Western Panjabi; an attempt to cover the dialect continuum between Hindko, Pahari-Potwari, and Western Panjabi in the north and Sindhi in the south. Grierson said Majhi is the purest form of Panjabi. Several dozen dialects. The Balmiki (Valmiki) sweeper caste in Attock District speak a dialect of Panjabi.

Pashto, Central[edit | edit source]

[pst] 7,922,657: Wazirstan, Bannu, Karak, southern ethnic group territories and adjacent areas. Alternate names: Mahsudi.  Dialects: Waciri (Waziri), Bannuchi (Bannochi, Bannu). Lexical comparison and interviews indicate this is distinct from Northern and Southern Pashto. For online language resources for Pashto, see below.

Pashto, Northern[edit | edit source]

[pbu] 9,585,000 in Pakistan: Population includes all Pashto. Population total all countries: 9,700,000. Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries. Along Afghanistan border, most of NWFP, Yusufzai, and Peshawar. Also spoken in Afghanistan, India, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Pakhto, Pashtu, Pushto, Yusufzai Pashto.  Dialects: Ningraharian Pashto, Northeastern Pashto. A good deal of similarity with Northwestern Pashto in Afghanistan. Subdialects of Northeastern Pashto are Kohat (Khatak), Yusufzai (Peshawar), Afridi, Shinwari, Mohmand, Shilmani. Lexical similarity 80% between Northeastern and Southwestern Pashto. For online language resources for Pashto, see below.

Pashto, Southern[edit | edit source]

[pbt] 1,356,059 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 2,674,367. Balochistan, Quetta area. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Pashtu, Pushto, Pushtu, Quetta-Kandahar Pashto.  Dialects: Southeastern Pashto, Quetta Pashto. There is generally an 80% lexical similarity between the northern and southern varieties of Pashto. For online language resources for Pashto, see below.

Phalura[edit | edit source]

[phl] 8,600: Seven villages on the east side of the lower Chitral Valley, possibly 1 village in Dir Kohistan; Purigal, Ghos, the Biori Valley, Kalkatak, and Ashret. Alternate names: Palula, Palola, Phalulo, Dangarik, Biyori.  Dialects: Ashreti, Northern Phalura. Ashreti has 92% lexical similarity with Northern Phalura. Lexical similarity 56% to 58% with Savi in Afghanistan, 38% to 42% with Shina.

Sansi[edit | edit source]

[ssi] 16,200 in Pakistan: Northern Sindh Province, main town, and some in Karachi. The Sochi live throughout Sindh. Alternate names: Bhilki.  Dialects: Sochi.

Savi[edit | edit source]

[sdg]:  Some might still live in refugee camps near Timargarha in Dir, Pakistan and near Drosh in Chitral, Pakistan. Probably most have returned to Afghanistan. Alternate names: Sawi, Sauji, Sau.

Seraiki[edit | edit source]

[skr] 13,843,106 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 13,863,106. Southern Punjab and northern Sind, Indus River Valley, Jampur area. Derawali is in Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Bannu, and Dera Ghazi Khan. Jangli is in Sahiwal area. Also spoken in India, United Kingdom. Alternate names: Saraiki, Riasiti, Bahawalpuri, Multani, Southern Panjabi, Siraiki.  Dialects: Derawali, Multani (Khatki), Bahawalpuri (Riasati, Reasati), Jangli, Jatki. Dialects blend into each other, into Panjabi to the east, and Sindhi to the south. Until recently it was considered to be a dialect of Panjabi. 80% intelligibility of Dogri. May be intelligible with Bahawalpuri. Lexical similarity 85% with Sindhi; 68% with Dhatki, Odki, and Sansi.

Shina[edit | edit source]

[scl] 300,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 321,000. Northern Areas including Gilgit District, scattered villages in Yasin and Ishkoman valleys, Punial, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley; Diamer District, Chilas area, Darel and Tangir valleys, Astor Valley; scattered areas of Baltistan District, Satpara, Kharmang, Kachura, and other small valleys; NWFP, east part of Kohistan District, Sazin, Harban. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Sina, Shinaki, Brokpa.  Dialects: Gilgiti (Gilgit, Punial, Hunza-Nagar, Bagrote, Haramosh, Rondu, Bunji), Astori (Astor, Gurezi, Dras, Satpara, Kharmangi), Chilasi Kohistani (Chilas, Darel, Tangir, Sazin, Harban). Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. Lexical similarity 79% to 99% within the Gilgiti (Northern) dialect cluster, 81% to 96% among the Astori (Eastern) cluster, 84% to 98% among the Chilas (Diamer) cluster.

Shina, Kohistani[edit | edit source]

[plk] 200,000: East bank of the Indus in Kohistan District, NWFP, in the Jalkot, Palas, and Kolai valleys and surrounding areas. Alternate names: Palasi-Kohistani, Kohistani, Kohistyo.  Dialects: Palasi, Jalkoti, Kolai. A somewhat divergent variety of Shina linguistically and socially. Closer to Shina of Chilas, but more distant from Gilgit.

Sindhi[edit | edit source]

[snd] 18,500,000 in Pakistan: Population includes 1,200,000 Hindu Sindhi (1986). Population total all countries: 21,362,000. Sindh. Also possibly United Arab Emirates. Also spoken in India, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, United Kingdom, USA. Dialects: Kachchi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Vicholo (Vicholi, Viccholi, Central Sindhi), Macharia, Dukslinu (Hindu Sindhi), Sindhi Musalmani (Muslim Sindhi). Some southern Bhil groups speak dialects of Sindhi. 100,000 speakers in rural Sindh came originally from the Kathiawar Peninsula in India. They are solidly Muslim, have widespread bilingualism in Sindh, and are almost completely assimilated with the Sindhi people. Lexical similarity 77% with Katiavari Kachi.

Sindhi Bhil[edit | edit source]

[sbn] 56,502: Sindh Province, Mohrano, Badin-Matli-Thatta, Ghorabari (on west). Sindhi Meghwar are scattered in an area from Badin-Matli to Tando Allahyar. Dialects: Sindhi Bhil, Mohrano, Badin, Sindhi Meghwar. Badin is close to Sindhi. Lexical similarity 82% between Mohrani and Sindhi; 89% between Sindhi Bhil and Sindhi Meghwar.

Torwali[edit | edit source]

[trw] 60,000: Swat Kohistan, on both sides of Swat River from just beyond Madyan north to Asrit (between Mankjal and Peshmal), and in Chail Valley east of Madyan, Bahrain and Chail are centers. Alternate names: Turvali.  Dialects: Bahrain, Chail. Lexical similarity 44% with Kalkoti and Kalami, 89% between Behrain and Chail.

Urdu[edit | edit source]

[urd] 10,719,000 in Pakistan: Population total all countries: 60,503,579. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Zambia. Dialects: Intelligible with Hindi, but has formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Dakhini is freer of Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry. For online language resources for Urdu, see below.

Ushojo[edit | edit source]

[ush] 2,000: Upper reaches of Bishigram (Chail) Valley, east of Madyan, Swat Kohistan. 12 villages. Alternate names: Ushuji.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Kolai Shina, 48% with Palas Shina, 42% with Gilgiti Shina, 35% with Chail Torwali, 31% with Biori Phalura, 27% with Bateri, 23% with Kalami, 22% with Kalkoti.

Vaghri[edit | edit source]

[vgr] 10,000 in Pakistan: Sindh, in Sukkur, Karachi (Bhes Colony), Nawabshah, Sakrand, Hala, Sanghar, Tando Adam, Tando Mohammed Khan, Badin, Matli, Tando Ghulam Ali, Digri, Noakot, Jang Sai, Mirpur Khas, and Tando Allahyar. Possibly 90,000 in India. Alternate names: Vaghri Koli, Salavta, Bavri.  Dialects: Related to the language spoken by the Kukar people living near Chanesar Halt, Mehmoodabad in Karachi. Lexical similarity 78% with Wadiyari Koli.

Wakhi[edit | edit source]

[wbl] 9,100 in Pakistan: Population includes 4,500 to 6,000 Gojal, 2,000 Ishkoman, 200 Yasin, 900 Yarkhun (1992), plus refugees. Population total all countries: 31,666. Northeasternmost part of Chitral, called Baroghil area; in glacier neighborhood. Gojal is in the upper Hunza valley from Gulmit to the Chinese and Afghanistan borders, and the Shimshal and Chupursan valleys; also in upper Yarkhun valley of Chitral, and upper Ishkoman valley. Also spoken in Afghanistan, China, Tajikistan. Alternate names: Wakhani, Wakhigi, Vakhan, Khik.  Dialects: Gojal, Ishkoman, Yasin, Yarkhun. Dialect intelligibility is reported to not be a problem even of those in other countries. Lexical similarity 84% between Ishkoman and Gojal, 89% between Yasin and Gojal, 91% between Ishkoman and Yasin.

Waneci[edit | edit source]

[wne] 95,000 (1998). Northeastern Balochistan Province, Harnai area. Alternate names: Wanechi, Wanetsi, Vanechi, Tarino, Chalgari.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% to 75% with Southern Pashto, 63% to 72% with other Pashto varieties, 27% with Ormuri.

Yidgha[edit | edit source]

[ydg] 6,145 (2000 WCD). Upper Lutkuh Valley of Chitral, west of Garam Chishma. Alternate names: Yudgha, Yudga, Yidga, Lutkuhwar.  Dialects: No significant dialect variation within Yidgha. Lexical similarity 56% to 80% with Munji in Afghanistan.

Websites[edit | edit source]

Urdu[edit | edit source]

Pastho[edit | edit source]