Newfoundland and Labrador Emigration and Immigration

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Online records[edit | edit source]

See Canada Emigration and Immigration for many more online collections covering all of Canada, including Newfoundland and Labrador.

Canadian Border Crossing Records[edit | edit source]

The United States kept records of people crossing the border from Canada to the United States. These records are called border crossing lists, passenger lists, or manifests. There are two kinds of manifests:

  • Manifests of people sailing from Canada to the United States.
  • Manifests of people traveling by train from Canada to the United States.

In 1895, Canadian shipping companies agreed to make manifests of passengers traveling to the United States. The Canadian government allowed U.S. immigration officials to inspect those passengers while they were still in Canada. The U.S. immigration officials also inspected train passengers traveling from Canada to the United States. The U.S. officials worked at Canadian seaports and major cities like Quebec and Winnipeg. The manifests from every seaport and emigration station in Canada were sent to St. Albans, Vermont. Because the manifests were sent to St. Albans, Vermont, they are called St. Albans District Manifest Records of Aliens Arriving from Foreign Contiguous Territory. Despite the name, the manifests are actually from seaports and railroad stations all over Canada and the northern United States, not just Vermont.

Contents. Manifests may include each passenger's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace.

Immigration History Articles[edit | edit source]

Topics include:
IMMIGRATION: The unprecedented prosperity of the early 19th century contributed to an extraordinary increase in immigration to Newfoundland.
19TH CENTURY MIGRATION: By end of the century, the country had a population of approximately 220,000 people.
NEWFOUNDLAND’S 1906 CHINESE HEAD TAX: About the $300.00 head tax imposed by the Newfoundland Government on each chinese immigrant entering Newfoundland in 1906.
ENGLISH: About the English and Irish origins of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians that immigrated between the 17th and 19th century.
ETHNIC DIVERSITY: A representation of John Guy's encounter with the Beothuk in 1612. Newfoundland and Labrador is often described as having the most homogeneous population of European origin in Canada.
FRENCH INVOLVEMENT IN THE NL FISHERY: France was one of the earliest European nations to engage in the Newfoundland and Labrador migratory fishery.
FRENCH MIGRATION IN NL, 1504-1904: French migrations to Newfoundland and Labrador began in the early 16th century and lasted for approximately 400 years.
FRENCH SETTLEMENT IN NL, 1504-1904: Newfoundland and Labrador's cod fishery was the major pull factor attracting French settlers to the colony from the 16th through 19th centuries.
IRISH MIGRATION: Irish migrations began in the late-17th century and peaked in the early 19th century, when up to 35,000 Irish arrived on the island.
THE IRISH IN NEWFOUNDLAND: The Irish migrations to Newfoundland, and the associated provisions trade, represent the oldest connections between Ireland and Canada.
IRISH SETTLEMENT PATTERNS: The cod fishery and its mercantile activities greatly influenced Irish settlement patterns in Newfoundland and Labrador.
ENGLISH MIGRATION: SEASONAL, TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT: Newfoundland experienced three types of migration from the English West Country: seasonal, temporary and permanent.
PUSH AND PULL FACTORS: The push and pull factors that contributed to immigration to Newfoundland.
SCOTTISH OCCUPATIONS IN NL: Scottish immigrants to Newfoundland and Labrador worked predominantly in the fields of commerce and agriculture during the 19th century.
SCOTTISH IN NL: The major Scottish migrations to Newfoundland and Labrador occurred in the 19th century and involved two unrelated phases.
WEST COUNTRY: The seasonal migrations from England to Newfoundland, begun in the 1500s, endured for nearly four centuries and involved numerous generations and hundreds of thousands of individuals.