New Brunswick Cultural Groups

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Acadians[edit | edit source]

  • The Drouin Collection Database, a collection of parish registers (baptisms, marriages and burials) from Quebec, Acadia, as well as parts of Ontario, New Brunswick and the United States. The collection also contains Acadian censuses from 1673 to 1784. ($)
  • The Acadia Families Tool This tool contains family files based on the Acadian parish records mentioned above. In total, the tool contains 96,000 family files from 1621 to 1849 and is equipped with a search engine which allows searches by last name, first name, date and parish. In addition, the original records are attached to the family files, allowing the information contained in them to be viewed and verified.($)
This list of approximately 300 family names was drawn from parish records, census records and other documents from Acadia/Nova Scotia in the first half of the 18th century. All Acadian civilian families known to have lived in the colony at any time between 1700 and 1755 are included. This list does not include the families of the French garrison which served in Acadia.

The area comprising today's New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island was once known as Arcadie. Eventually the name became Acadia. The area was first settled by the French in 1605. The territory passed back and forth from French to English hands many times. In accordance with the Treaty of Utrecht, France ceded the Nova Scotia peninsula and the New Brunswick area to England. England did little to settle the area and the French-speaking Acadians were the majority until about 1750. France still retained Ile Saint-Jean (now Prince Edward Island) and Cape Breton Island (now part of Nova Scotia).

A large number of the Acadians were deported by the English from 1755 to 1760. To escape deportation, many fled to Québec or to what is now New Brunswick. Many came to Prince Edward Island causing the population to rise near 5,000. The Island was essentially a refugee camp. In 1759, the Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island areas fell to Britain and the settlers were deported to France. In 1763 France ceded most of its maritime lands to England and the area became known as Nova Scotia.

In 1769, a separate province, Saint John's Island (Ile St. Jean), was established. It became Prince Edward Island in 1799. In 1784, the New Brunswick area also became a separate province. About this time many Acadians who had been deported agreed to sign the oath of allegiance to England and were allowed to take up lands in the Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island). They worked primarily as farmers and fishermen. For the most part, they continued to speak French and uphold their Roman Catholic faith.[1]

Library and Archives Canada[edit | edit source]

Reading French Records[edit | edit source]

Black History[edit | edit source]

A few thousand Africans arrived in Canada in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves. After the American Revolution, the British gave passage to over 3000 slaves and free Blacks who had remained loyal to the Crown. These Black Loyalists joined the many other United Empire Loyalists in settlements across the Maritime Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Other Black slaves joined their Loyalist slave owners when they migrated to Canada. Other migrations of Black people from the United States occurred during the War of 1812, when over 2000 refugees came to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Many Black people migrated to Canada in search of work and became porters with the railroad companies in Ontario, Quebec, and the Western provinces or worked in mines in the Maritimes.[2]

British Immigrants[edit | edit source]

From 1775 to 1783, during the American Revolution, an influx of English Loyalist settlers migrated to Nova Scotia, Lower Canada (Quebec), New Brunswick and Upper Canada (Ontario). The exodus from the United States to what would become Canada lasted until the War of 1812 when the British Forces mobilized their regiments to defend their colony from an American invasion.[3]

Danish[edit | edit source]

New Denmark, the oldest Danish settlement in Canada, was founded in New Brunswick in 1872. Captain Søren Severin Heller, a Danish sea captain recruited twenty-seven people comprising of five young families and seven single men to come to Canada and settle in New Brunswick. They set sail for Halifax and arrived in New Denmark on June 19th, 1872, just two days short of Midsummer's Day which is a traditional day of celebration in Denmark. New Denmark, an agricultural area, well-known for its potatoes, is situated southeast of Grand Falls. Upon entering the community of New Denmark you will come across two churches standing opposite each other. St. Ansgar's Anglican Church and St. Peter's Lutheran Church. Niels Hansen, a Lutheran lay missionary arrived in New Denmark in 1875, along with his wife, eight children and 20 others from his parish in Denmark. Life was very difficult at that time in New Denmark so the Hansens soon decided to return to Denmark. A visiting Anglican clergyman suggested to Hansen that he should become a minster of the Church of England which would then provide support. Hansen believed that the differences between the Anglican and Lutheran churches were not doctrinal but rather in the form of services. St. Ansgar's Anglican Church was consecrated in 1884. The Danish language continued to be used and the church had a Danish character as well as the Danish flag adorned the interior. [4]

First Nations[edit | edit source]

The First Nations of New Brunswick, Canada number more than 10,000, mostly Mi'kmaq and Maliseet. Although the Passamaquoddy maintain a land claim at St. Andrews, New Brunswick and historically occurred in New Brunswick, they have no reserves in the province, and have no official status in Canada. New Brunswick is home to 28 Indian reserves, of which 18 are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada.[5]

German Immigrants[edit | edit source]

The British purchased the services of 30,000 German Soldiers for $150,000, all of which went into the royal coffers of the German princes. These troops came from Hesse Cassel, Hesse Hanau, Brunswick, Anspach, Bayreuth, Anhalt Zerbst and Waldeck. A large migration of Germans to Canada occurred during the period after the American Revolution. A total of 30,000 Germans fought in North America between 1776 and 1783; among them, 10,000 men served in Canada and almost 2,400 settled there after the war, mainly in Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.[6]

Irish Immigrants[edit | edit source]

  • The Irish probably represent the largest group of immigrants to come to New Brunswick.
  • By far, the largest immigration of the Irish to Canada occurred during the mid-19th century. The Great Irish Potato Famine of 1847 was the cause of death, mainly from starvation, of over a million Irish. It was also the motivation behind the mass exodus of hundreds of thousands of Irish to North America. Because passage to Canada was less expensive than passage to the United States, Canada was the recipient of some of the most destitute and bereft Irish.[7]

Jewish Immigrants[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Acadians", Library and Archives Canada., accessed 14 November 2020.
  2. "Black History", Library and Archives Canada., accessed 14 November 2020.
  3. "British", Library and Archives Canada., accessed 14 November 2020.
  4. "History", Federation of Danish Associations in Canada,, accessed 14 November 2020.
  5. "First Nations in New Brunswick", at Wikipedia, [, accessed 15 November 29020.
  6. "Internet Listing of Hessian Soldiers of the Revolution",, accessed 23 October 2020.
  7. "Irish Immigrants", Library and Archives Canada., accessed 15 November 2020.