Mecklenburg-Schwerin Land and Property
For a comprehensive understanding of land and property records, study the article Germany Land and Property.
Landholder Lists[edit | edit source]
- Landowner lists on "Feldflurkarten Mecklenburgs" by Franz Schubert. Transferred lists of names of the landowners in the state of Mecklenburg in 1727. Family History Center, Film # 1441034, Item 8 and # 1181901, Item 9.
Grundherrschaft and Gutsherrschaft in Germany[edit | edit source]
Through the centuries most of our ancestors lived in rural areas and came under the auspices of a Grund- or Gutsherr (landowner). Most cultivable land was owned by them – less by small farmers, although it was possible for a Grundherr to lease land to more or less independent farmers. A Grundherr can be lord over a small area, does not have to be a nobleman and can also be a monastery. A manorial system was complex and embraced all aspects of life. A Gutsherr, also a manor lord, owned land and managed it through workers. The farmers of the surrounding area were his subordinates and their affairs were regulated by him or his administrator.
There were three forms of manorial systems:
2. Interest or annuity based
3. Manorial or patrimonial based
This system consisted of a manor and a couple of dependent farms. The manor lord owned acreage, meadows, gardens, woods, lakes, rivers, canals, vineyards and mills. The manor lord lived either at the manor house or had his administrator (Villikus) conduct the business. This man was responsible to collect contributions from the farmers, also called Grundholden. He had the power to hold court. Even if some farmers were independent, somehow they became part of the multifaceted enterprise of the manor.
• The interest or annuity based system
This system very much functioned as villication did, only there did not exist the right to ownership. The manor lord leased the land and collected interest or annuities. This form of manorial system was prevalent in areas of clearing or colonization.
• The manorial or patrimonial system
East of the Elbe River in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East/West Prussia, Silesia (Ober-/Niederlausitz) the Gutsherrschaft was prominent. A Gut consisted of a castle like manor house to which was attached a large farming area and smaller farming units (Vorwerk). A Gutsherr was interested in expansion by re-cultivating waste lands and annexing or buying farmlands. In this wise an entire village could become part of the Gutsherrschaft and economic growth be ensured. The entire area was cultivated by farm hands, subordinate farmers and squatters (Gärtner, Häusler). The members of a Gut were part of a more or less crushing personal dependence. Dependents had to observe Erbuntertänigkeit (subservience which was inheritable) Schollenpflicht (tied to the area) and Gesindedienstzwang (had to provide services by waiting in the wings). Gutsherrschaft was spreading because authoritative laws were transferred to the Gutsherrr of noble descent. He exercised police powers and patrimonial jurisprudence.
With all these regulations, obligations, stipulations etc. there are numerous records re. land transactions, regulative and obligatory actions involving our ancestors who dwelled in rural Germany.
Hausbuch[edit | edit source]
The literal translation for this term is house book. It has several meanings.
It could be a handwritten document or a book, often a family bible or a book that contained information for a family, such as a pedigree or similar documentation. It could be a volume for household tips. Furthermore it could be an accounting book used by merchants. In the former DDR (German Democratic Republic) the Hausbuch was a mandatory registry.
When administrative records in medieval times were written, they were kept in one volume, the city book (Stadtbuch). All proceedings were recorded therein, from collecting taxes to sales of properties, inheritances etc. Thus a house book was also a legal record. In later centuries administrations were separated and the legal proceedings came under the judicial arm of governing.
In the collection of the Family History Library are some records of Hausbücher which deal with sales, inheritances, and transfers of property going back to the 1300s. The researcher will find names of seller and buyer, names of women or children and who represented them, and also names of donators of land. The documents can be retrieved by entering the word “Hausbuch” in the key word search of the catalog. For instance, the Hausbuch of Neustadt for the years 1515-1597 cover records created in Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The film number is 2329381 it. 1-2