Hanover (Hannover) History
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Historical Background[edit | edit source]
Hanover became part of Preußen in the year 1866, and prior to this time was ruled by different noblemen. A helpful site that will show a pedigree of these nobles and where they were from is found at this link: http://www.koenigreich-hannover.de/ukindex2.html. Once at this site, there is a left side bar with the topic Personell Union. If you click this tab you will see the pedigree and the nobility which ruled from the year 1689, this being the House of Stuart in England. On this page read the explanation of the rulership of this area. At the same link also go to the home page and read the information regarding the history of Hanover that is shown here.
A very detailed report concerning both Hanover and Hessen-Nassau entitled From Sovereign States to Prussian Provinces: Hanover and Hesse-Nassau, 1866-1871 can be found at the following link: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1898934 . On the upper left of this document is a box described as “Tools.” If you click on the top line of this tool box “View PDF,” you will have a much easier to read version of this document. The document gives you a good history as to how these two areas came from being Sovereign States to being provinces in Preußen. Although not required to read the entire article, it will give you lots of background for both of the provinces.
Summary of Hanover’s History
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In the 1000’s, showed Hanover as having been called Angria and it was a part of Saxony. A small part of it belonged to the Friesland area. Around the time of 1235, Hanover was originally a part of the duchy of Braunschweig.
Middle Ages and Reformation[edit | edit source]
In the 16th century Ernest 1 regained control of the area and established the Protestant religion there. In 1634 the duchies of Calenberg and Göttingen were added to Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Various noblemen ruled during this time. In 1814 the kingdom of Hanover became recognized in constitutional law.
Hanover and England
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Refer to the site mentioned in the first paragraph. In 1658, Ernest Augustus married Sophia of the Pfalz, granddaughter of James I of England. The two areas, England and Hanover, were kept separate and the Hanover electorate was governed by a council and by the German chancellery in London. In 1837 the Kingdom of Hanover passed to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. He instituted a liberal constitution and became popular because of his concern for the welfare of his people. He was succeeded by his son George V, who during the power struggle between Austria and Prussia tried to maintain neutrality. In 1866, he left his country with his army and had to surrender and was exiled to France.
Hanover and the French Revolution[edit | edit source]
Because of Hanover’s connection to England, it was targeted by England’s enemies. As examples, were the Battle of Hastenbeck and the battle of Minden in 1759. During the French Revolutionary Wars, Hanover was occupied by Prussians in 1801 and 1805. It was occupied by the French in 1803 and 1806. The French occupation continued till the year 1813. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, Hanover was reestablished and enlarged with the additions of Hildesheim, EIchsfeld, Ostfriesland and some other areas. In 1814 Hanover became a Kingdom and became a member of the German Confederation.
Hanover as a Province in Preußen and a Modern German State
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Sep. 20, 1866 Hanover was annexed into Preußen and became a province at that time. It became a part of the German Empire in 1871 although not totally assimilated by Prussia. On Nov.1, 1946 Hanover was united with Oldenburg, Braunschweig and Schaumburg-Lippe into the state of Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) .
The people of this area were called Saxons, named after a Germanic tribe of people from the Northern parts of Germany. Here is a link to the history of the Saxons (Niedersachsen). They originate from what we know today as the Federal State of Germany: Niedersachsen. Read these very interesting articles to understand the origins and migration patterns of the Saxon people.