Germany Finding Town of Origin
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Finding the Town of Origin[edit | edit source]
In order to research your family in Germany, it is essential that you have identified the place where they came from. It is not enough to know only ‘Germany’ or ‘Prussia,’ as these were quite large entities. You must know the city, town, or parish that they came from. In many cases, it will be difficult to identify the place of origin by going directly to German sources. Therefore, you will need to search in American sources first.
What You Need to Know to Begin Research in Germany[edit | edit source]
It is essential that you know:
- The given and surname of your ancestor: for example, Henry M Borgmann.
- The exact place name, for example: Stadt Osnabrück, Kreis Osnabrück, Hannover, Prussia (now Niedersachsen).
- The time frame.
- The religion of your ancestor: usually Catholic or Evangelical Lutheran.
Name[edit | edit source]
Before you can embark in meaningful research, you need to be clear about the name of your ancestor. Many names have been Americanized or have been recorded according to sound. For example, a name with a written "V" in German, would sound like an "F" to an American clerk writing it down. Following the paper trail of your ancestor may give you clues. Search ship lists, naturalization records, church records, civil records or any record where your ancestor had to sign his name.
Place Name[edit | edit source]
Another very important piece of evidence to find is the correct town of origin of an ancestor. Again, a given place name may be spelled according the recorder’s understanding. It is not enough information to just know that your ancestor came from Germany or Prussia. Even to know the German state, such as Hessen, sometimes proves futile, because there are old states called Hessen, Hessen-Nassau, Hessen-Darmstadt, Hessen-Kassel etc.
Cultural Regions[edit | edit source]
Germany has many "cultural regions" and "geographical landscapes", smaller, informal areas that were not political entities. You might be familiar with the Black Forest, the Ruhr, the Saar, or Frisia (Friesland). Your ancestors might have left records or family traditions that they were from one of these areas. This list of (German) "landscapes" by GenWiki can help you identify these regions. Once you know that the information is a cultural region not a town, you will know that you need to search further to narrow down your ancestors' town.
Time Frame[edit | edit source]
It is also most helpful to know the time frame when you search for a German ancestor. Germany was never a united state until 1871. Before that it consisted of dozens of little states. All successful research is based on knowing the availability of records for a given time period.
Religious Affiliation[edit | edit source]
If you know the religious affiliation of your ancestor you may also get faster results in locating your ancestor. Most Germans were Catholics or Protestants, however, in some areas, the records of people of other faiths were kept by the predominant church. For example, Jewish or Mennonite births were occasionally recorded at Catholic parishes, especially in areas where the Church was used as the civil registration office.
Search Home Sources[edit | edit source]
Thoroughly go over all home sources available to you, including family history papers, copies of records, pictures, old letters (i.e. with an old address), family bibles, journals/diaries, copies of vital record certificates and church records, memorabilia etc. Interview extended family and close relatives as well as former neighbors--all of which may prove very helpful in gathering as much knowledge about an ancestor as possible.
- Collecting Previous Research by Others Part One: Home and Relative Sources
- Gather Family Information
Emigration Questions to Ask Relatives[edit | edit source]
Find the oldest living relatives that you can and ask them:
- What do you know about our first ancestor to come from Germany? (open-ended)
- Have you ever heard mention of towns in Germany where the family lived?
- Do you have contact with any relatives in Germany?
- . Do you have contact with other branches of the family in the U.S.?
- . When _____________ came from Germany, did he travel with other family members?
- . Do you know when _________________ arrived and which port city?
- Did _______________ever become a citizen?
- Did_________________fight in World War I or II?
- When they first came, were there already family members here who they joined?
- Did_______________ever mention their parents in Germany?
- Were they Catholic or Lutheran?
- Do you have any old letters or postcards from Germany family?
- Do you have any pictures of family members in Germany?
Search Genealogies Compiled by Others[edit | edit source]
- Collecting Previous Research by Others Part Two: Online Family Tree Collections
- Collecting Previous Research by Others Part Three: Digitized Books
- Collecting Previous Research by Others Part Four: FamilySearch Wiki Tools
Indexed Records Created in Germany[edit | edit source]
Make Sure You Found the Correct Entry for Your Ancestor[edit | edit source]
- Make sure the person you found in German records left Germany. Look for them in marriage and death records of the same vicinity. See whether they have children a generation later in the vicinity. These things prove they remained in Germany and would rule them out as your ancestor.
- Match any other relationships. If you already know the parents' names, spouse's name, and/or siblings' names, make sure they match the parents' names, spouse's name, and/or siblings' names of the person you are considering in the German records. The parents and grandparents will usually be listed in birth records found in church records or civil records. Search for siblings' birth records and any marriage before leaving Germany in the same index.
- Study all available entries for that name born at the same approximate time, not just the first possible match you see.
- Consider the coverage of the database you are using. Does it cover all of Germany? Or could there be many other records not covered that could hold your ancestor's record. For example, if the database is for just one province, there are 110 other provinces which could have your ancestor's record.
- Make sure the details you have learned about the person after they immigrate have no discrepancies with the person you found in German records.
Germany Records Databases to Try[edit | edit source]
- Germany Guided Research
- Germany Civil Registration, government birth, marriage, and death records could be available from the early 1800s to the early or mid-1900s. These records can name grandparents in addition to parents, and towns for residence and/or birth for both.
- There are several Germany Church Records online.
- See Germany Emigration and Immigration for records of Germans immigrating, including some online digitized records and indexes.
- See Germany Online Genealogy Records for other databases that might hold clues.
Records of the Country of Destination[edit | edit source]
- Church Records: If your ancestor immigrated to a European or a South American/Hispanic country, church records can be detailed enough to identify a former residence or birthplace in the home country. These countries, unlike the United States, had state churches. In many countries, these state churches were used by the country to keep birth, marriage, and death records. Even though your ancestor was born in his former country, he may have married, and certainly died in his new country. Marriage and death records can state birthplace.
- Civil Registration: Eventually, most governments began keeping birth, marriage, and death records. These tend to be quite detailed. Again, if your ancestor was possibly married and certainly died in their new country, those records can state birthplace.
- Citizenship Records: If your ancestor became a full citizen, those records probably name birthplace and former residence.
- Online Genealogy Records: See Online Genealogy Records by Location and find the online genealogy record page for your country to see other indexed collections that can be consulted.
Records to Search Created in the United States[edit | edit source]
19th Century Census Records[edit | edit source]
- Search19th Century Census Records, available for the United States, Canada, England, and other countries. Censuses are often taken every ten years.
- Try to locate your ancestor in every census during which he or she was alive. This information provides a good framework for further research.
- The 1850-1880 U.S. federal censuses sometimes list a German state or province as birth place.
- The censuses for 1900 to 1930 ask for the year of immigration and whether or not the person was naturalized. This information can help you find naturalization records or a passenger list.
- United States Census Online Genealogy Records will give you links to every census. The FamilySearch links lead to a free search, but the search engine is not as reliable. The other links are for subscription websites, but they can be searched free-of-charge at any Family History Center.
- State census records vary in availability and the type of information they contain, but they are always useful as another source to document an ancestor in a specific locality. See United States Online Genealogy Records by State for links to online state censuses.
Vital Records[edit | edit source]
Understand that any birth, marriage, or death certificate gives information about other people besides the primary person it is about
- It is important to remember that a birth certificate for a child might tell its parents' birthplaces.
- Marriage certificates might name birth dates and places of the bride and groom. They might also give the names and birth places of the parents of the bride and groom.
- Death certificates are very important. Birth and marriage certificates might not have kept by a state during the earlier years of your ancestor's life. There is a greater chance that your ancestor died after detailed record-keeping began. Death certificates frequently state birth date and place. They also state the names of parents and their birth places.
- There are wiki articles giving details on how to find vital records in each state. You can select the state of interest and the record (birth, marriage, or death) from this list: How-To Articles.
- Many records may be online. See United States Online Genealogy Records by State for online vital record databases.
Cemetery Records[edit | edit source]
Websites such as FindAGrave and Billion Graves are making it easier to get information from headstones, which frequently give birth dates, and occasionally give birth places. Each state has additional collections of cemetery records. See United States Online Genealogy Records by State for links to other online cemetery records.
Obituaries[edit | edit source]
Modern obituaries usually list birth date and place and parents' names. See United States Online Genealogy Records by State and select your state for links to online obituary collections.
Military Records[edit | edit source]
Draft records for World War I and II ask for birth place, which can be listed as just Germany or in greater detail.
- U.S. WW I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 Index and images.
- U.S. WW I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 Indexes and images. ($)
- U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, ($), index and images
- United States, World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942 Images with partial index.
- U.S., Alien Draft Registrations, Selected States, 1940-1946, ($), index and images.
Social Security[edit | edit source]
- The application for the Social Security card may also contain a town of birth. These records are available for deceased individuals who died after 1935 when Social Security began.
- The Social Security Applications and Claims Index does not cover every application--it has sort of an eclectic mix of what got included. If you find your ancestor in the Social Security Death Index but not in the Social Security Applications and Claims Index, you can send away for a copy of the application.
Passenger Arrival Lists[edit | edit source]
Passenger lists, especially in the 20th century, may list birth place, last residence in mother country, and name and residence of a close relative in the mother country. United States Immigration Online Genealogy Records is a comprehensive list of passenger arrival databases that you can search right now from your computer. There are many, many databases. The following search strategy will make your search more efficient.
Suggested Search Strategy[edit | edit source]
- Check the partner website indexes, as these cover many, many databases at once. The FamilySearch Historical Records databases is free to search with a free registered account. The other websites are subscription-based but can be searched for free at a Family History Center near you. Try to search each partner site because their search engines can often bring up slightly different results.
- If it is difficult for you to get access to the subscription databases, next try Additional Nationwide Collections Not Included in Partner Sites. These websites have a lot of overlap with the subscription websites.
- Search a nationality, religious, or political group collection that applies to your ancestor.
- Search the state collection for the first state where your ancestor lived.
Research Tip[edit | edit source]
German emigrants usually left in groups from the same area of Germany. After finding your ancestor on a port record or passenger register, write down all the people on the same list.
Check local census and other records to determine which people settled in the same area as your ancestor.
Check for place of origin information on those who were on the same list.
If your ancestor's surname is not unusual, but some of the others on the same list are, look those names up in the German surname books to determine where they originated.
Naturalization Records[edit | edit source]
- Naturalization records may also list an ancestor’s birth place.
- Prior to 1906 any U.S. court could naturalize foreigners. Many pre-1900 records only list “Germany” as the country of citizenship; however, there are notable exceptions, so these records should be checked routinely.
- The process involved two sets of papers: a declaration of intention to become a U.S. citizen, and a petition filed some time later.
- Beginning in 1906, naturalization records became more detailed, as the responsibility shifted to the Federal government.
- More information about naturalization records, along with helpful links, is found at Beginning Research in United States Naturalization Records and United States Naturalization and Citizenship Online Genealogy Records.
Passport Applications[edit | edit source]
- U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925, ($), index and images
Records Originating in Germany That Can Help[edit | edit source]
So far this article has covered records that can be found in the country of arrival. There are also records originating in Germany that should be consulted.
Online Databases[edit | edit source]
See Germany Emigration and Immigration for a listing of additional records.
Hamburg Passenger Lists[edit | edit source]
- Hamburg Passenger Lists, 1850-1934, index and images, ($)
Hamburg, one of three major ports of departure for Germans, has lists which give, name, age, birth place or residence. and the last foreign residence of people leaving from Hamburg.
- There are two lists:
- The Direct Passenger List (1850 to 1934) lists those who left Hamburg and went directly to their destination.
- The Indirect Passenger List (1850 to 1910) shows those who left Hamburg, went to another port, and then on to their destination. After 1910 the indirect list is included with the Direct Passenger List:
Bremen Passenger Lists[edit | edit source]
- Germany, Bremen Passenger Departure Lists, 1907-1908 and 1913-1914, Card Index
- Bremen passenger lists, 1920-1939
Unfortunately, the passenger departure lists for the port of Bremen were destroyed. This online list is very small. The lists for 1847 to 1871 have been partially reconstructed.
- An early commercial partner with Bremen was the port at Baltimore, Maryland. Many Germans going to America through Bremen landed in Baltimore. The Baltimore passenger arrival lists can be used to compensate partially for the loss of the Bremen departure lists:
German Emigration Indexes[edit | edit source]
- Germans Immigrating to the United States, FindMyPast, ($)
- Hessen Emigration Card Indexes: The indexes are divided into five sections for various time periods or areas of Hessen, each in alphabetical order.
- Einwandererkartei, 16.-17. Jahrhundert, from the Pfalz, 1500s-1900s:
- Baden, Germany Emigration Index, 1866-1911, index and images, ($)
- Auswanderung aus Südwestdeutschland, (Emigrants of Southwestern Germany, Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, 1751-1920. Index.
- Bavaria and Pfalz Emigration Database
- Brandenburg, Prussia Emigration Records (Auswanderungsakten, Brandenburg, Preußen), ($). 1800's-early 1900's. Index. In German. Incomplete.
- Auswanderer-Nachweise Hessen State Archives
- Emigration from Lippe to the USA
- Names of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Emigrants 1844-1915
- The emigration from Mecklenburg-Schwerin to overseas countries, especially after the United States of North America
- Pomerania, Germany, Passenger Lists, 1869-1901
- Network Westphalian America emigration since the 19th century, Index. Incomplete.
- Male immigrants from Rheinland and Westfalen, Prussia
- Female immigrants from Rheinland and Westfalen, Prussia
- Schaumburg-Lippe Emigrants, 1820-1914
- Emigration lists of the former Duchy of Braunschweig
- Emigrants from the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
- Niedersachsen Archives Search Page, enter "Auswanderer" and surname.
- Schleswig-Holstein Immigrants in New Amsterdam/New York,1636 - 1667.
- Das Nordfriesische Auswanderer-Archiv (North Friesland Emigrants), Images and no index.
- Emigration out of Schleswig-Holstein, 19th century, index.
- Index of all emigrants from Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen, 1834-1914, index.
- Index of all emigrants from Sachsen-Meiningen, for the 1800's, index.
- Wuerttemberg, Germany Emigration Index, ($). late 1800's-1900's. Index. Incomplete.
Germans to America[edit | edit source]
- Germans to America is a multivolume set that lists many Germans who arrived in the United States between 1850 and 1897. It is organized chronologically and then by ship. It often gives the town or state of origin of the immigrant.
Online Databases Restricted to Family History Center Use[edit | edit source]
- Any of the subscription databases ($) listed about can be searched free of charge at a Family History Center.
- In addition, these online will only work if used on a computer at a Family History Center.
German Emigration Card Indexes[edit | edit source]
Microfilmed Records at the Family History Library, Salt Lake City[edit | edit source]
These records are available only by searching microfilms at the Family History Library, Salt Lake City. There is a project to digitize them, so check back occasionally to see if they have become available.
Passport and Emigration Applications[edit | edit source]
Each state or city had its own laws regarding passports. In many cases, the applications for passports and the supporting documentation have been preserved. These records often give Germans had to apply for permission to emigrate from most areas. The Family History Library has these application records for several states and cities, including ‘’’Baden, Rheinland, the Pfalz, and Zwickau.’’’
- The Hamburg Passport Applications have been microfilmed for the years 1851 to 1929 and include indexes. Residents of Hamburg had to apply for a passport to emigrate. A few emigrants from other parts of Germany stopped in Hamburg long enough to become residents. If they were residents, they might be in the passport records.
- Index to Wuerttemberg passport applications : Stuttgart passport office 1845-1920 They list the emigrant's birthplace, residence, assets, and indebtedness.
- For Bayern there is a periodical entitled Blätter des Bayrischen Landesvereines für Familienkunde. The call number is 943.3 B2b. The volumes which deal with emigration are V. 1, page 19 and 48, V. 2, page 103, V. 3, pages 9, 39, 73, 87, 102 V. 6-7, V. 9 pages 157, 417.
Databases of FamilySearch Historical Records[edit | edit source]
These collections are somewhat random in what they include. Be cautious in assuming that a individual with the same name is your ancestor. Back up the connection with additional evidence, such as a matching birth date, matching parents or other relatives, and evidence that the person located in the index did not remain in Germany.
- Germany Births and Baptisms, 1558-1898, index; Also at: MyHeritage ($)
- Germany Deaths and Burials, 1582-1958, index; Also at: MyHeritage($)
- Germany Marriages, 1558-1929, index; Also at: MyHeritage ($)
Other Sources[edit | edit source]
- Google the ancestor. An unknown relative may have begun researching the family and posted their findings in one of the many surname forums or chat rooms.
- Check the local libraries in the areas where your German immigrant ancestor lived. The reference librarian can direct you to local sources or local record keepers. Ask where local newspapers and periodicals are archived and search them for such events as wedding announcements, obituaries, or other important life events.
- County and town histories where your German immigrant settled often contain biographical information. Local histories sometimes provide a place of origin. City histories give the origin of prominent citizens, and county histories show where German settlers came from. Biographical information of descendants may contain specific places of origin beyond the non-descript "Germany" or "Prussian" words found in other records.
- The German-American Newspapers and Periodicals 1732-1955 is a listing of German language newspapers throughout America.
- There are many books written about Germans settling in various states.
- Surname distribution tools for Germany, are based on recent data presented on a 3-D map. This can be helpful only if you had an extremely unusual surname.