Caddo Nation

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Various Spellings: Caddo, Cadoe

The Caddo Tribe is primarily associated with the states of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.[1][2]

1984 enrollment 2.947 [3]

CaddoTribe (leader of Whitebead Caddo) George Sashington (Sho-we-tat, Little Boy) born in Louisiana in1816,byAlexanderGardner,1872NO.100.jpg

Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]

Caddo Nation
P. O. Box 487
Binger, OK 73009
Phone: 405-656-2344

History[edit | edit source]

Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]

1541: First encountered by De Soto

1714: French trading post at Caddoan village at Natchitodes

1770: Caddo-Spanish Treaty

1803: Louisiana Purchase,

  • 1835 July 1, at Caddo Agency, some of the tribe migrated to Texas, some joined the Choctaw

1836: Texas became a republic,

1844: Choctaw expelled the Caddo as "Indian Intruders"

  • 1846 May 15, at Council Springs Treaty

1854: Many moved to Brazos Reserve, Texas

1859: Removal by Superintendent Robert S. Neighbors, on a reservation near the Washita River in Indian Territory - now Caddo County, Oklahoma

1861: Signed a treaty with the Confederate States, those loyal to the Union fled to Kansas until 1867

1865: Caddo were scouts for the U.S. Army

1867: Moved to Oklahoma

1872: Caddo-Wichita Reservation established

Agencies[edit | edit source]

Red River Agency1824-30

Caddo Agency 1824-42

Texas Agency 1847-59

Wichita Agency 1859-78

Kiowa Agency 1878-80

Reservations[edit | edit source]

Brazos Reservation

Caddo-Wichita Reservation

Western Superintendency

Southern Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Colorado Superintendency

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands[edit | edit source]

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Caddo Nation, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.

Records[edit | edit source]

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Land Records[edit | edit source]

Tribally owned 2,602.64 acres. Allotted land 55,599.92 acres [4]

Agency Records[edit | edit source]

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 Roll Number

FHL Film Number Post-1885 Census M595 Roll Number FHL Film Number
Caddo Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962 Fort Worth - First film: 1638620
Rolls 211-23

First film:


Caddo Red River Agency, 1824-30 Washington D.C. Roll 727 - - -
Caddo Caddo Agency,1824-42 Washington D.C. Roll 31 - - -
Caddo Wichita Agency, 1859-78 Washington D.C. Rolls 928-30 1638620 Rolls 211-23 573847
Caddo Kiowa Agency, 1864-1962 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 375-86 -


Films: 576900-576912}}

Treaties[edit | edit source]

The link on the year (Year of the Treaty) connects to an online copy of the treaty.

  • May, 13, 1833, referred to in Quapaw Treaty,
  • 1835 July 1, at Caddo Agency
  • 1846 May 15, at Council Springs

Important Websites[edit | edit source]

For Further Reading[edit | edit source]

See For Further Reading.

References[edit | edit source]

  • Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews. Notes on the Caddo. Kraus Reprint Co., 1969. FHL Book 970.3C114p
  • Swanton, John Reed. Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians, Washington, GPO. 1942. FHL Fiche 6039060 (five fiche)

  1. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
  2. Caddo in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia (accessed 3 August 2105).
  3. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 214
  4. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 214