Big Cypress Reservation, Florida
The Big Cypress Reservation is located in Hendry County, Florida
Headquarters[edit | edit source]
Their casino in Hollywood, Florida
History[edit | edit source]
Seminole People are originally from further north. They are of Creek origins and of the Mushkogean Language Family which is a part of the Macro-Algonquian Languages. Click this link http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/355350/Macro-Algonquian-languages to learn about the Macro-Algonquian Languages. Mus-ko-ge-an is similar to the Ojibwa word for the Ojibwa's who lived in swampy areas which is Mus-ke-go or Mus-ke-go-walk. Muskegowalk means Swampy People. These Ojibwa People are known as the Swampy Cree.
During the 18th century, many Creeks fled south to Florida with their Indian and black allies. During the first 6 decades of the 19th century, the Creek Seminoles and their Indian and black allies, were constantly at war against the United States. These wars are known as the Seminole Wars. There were 3 Seminole Wars.
During the 1st Seminole War, large numbers of Seminoles and their Indian and black allies, fled to the Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean. They probably even migrated to northern South America and Central America. Many settled at Andros Island. Red Bay was settled by the Seminoles and their Indian and black allies, and from the names of a few other Andros Island settlements, several other Andros Island settlements were also colonized by the Seminole and their Indian and black allies. These Seminole migrations to Andros Island happened between 1819 and 1821.
After the 2nd Seminole War, several thousand Seminoles and their Indian and black allies, were forced to leave Florida, for Oklahoma. After the 2nd Seminole War, it was estimated only 300 Seminoles remained in Florida. After they reached Oklahoma, many of the Seminoles and their Indian and black allies, joined with other Algonquin's and fled to Mexico.
After the 3rd Seminole War, nearly all of the Seminole People of Florida had been removed to Oklahoma. Chief Billy Bowlegs was persuaded by Seminoles from Oklahoma to move to Oklahoma. In early 1858, chief Billy Bowlegs led 171 Seminoles to Oklahoma, Later on in that same year, he returned to Florida and gathered together another 75 Seminoles to be relocated to Oklahoma. Afterwards, only around 50 to 60 Seminole remained in Florida. They were led by chief Sam Jones who was nearly 100 years old at that time.
Between 1860 and 1880, almost nothing is known about the Seminoles who remained in Florida. In 1880, a researcher from the Bureau of American Ethnology found 5 Seminole villages in southern Florida. Their population was 208.
Between 1877-1889, the Cheyenne Chippewas from Montana, were forcefully relocated to Oklahoma and soon afterwards a series of violent military actions happened which killed and wounded 100s of Cheyenne Chippewas and whites. Many refused to live in Oklahoma and for many of them it was better to die trying to go back to Montana than stay in Oklahoma.
Mexico was an attraction and that was known of by American leaders who were aware of the war the Chippewas of Mexico were waging against the United States at the time (late 1870s and early 1880s). Instead of confining the Cheyenne Chippewas to Oklahoma, the United States relocated them to Fort Marion in northeastern Florida. Either many escaped to southern Florida or they were allowed to settle in southern Florida by the United States. The United States knew keeping the Cheyenne Chippewas in Florida was safer and the likelihood of a war being fought in southern Florida, was very unlikely.
Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]
1500-1600: According to Ojibwa author George Copway, the Ojibwa Language was spoken from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, 300 to 400 years before his time (the 1850s).
1600-1700: Chippewa soldiers battled the invading whites in Florida who were Dutch, English, French, and Spanish.
1700-1800: Chippewa soldiers and their Indian and black allies, were constantly at war against the invading whites in Florida.
1814-1819: An invasion is launched by the United States into northern Florida. Chippewa soldiers and their Indian and black allies, migrated to southern Florida then migrated to the Bahamas and other Caribbean Islands. The 1st Seminole War ended in 1819.
1819-1821: More Chippewas and their Indian and black allies, migrated to the Bahamas and other Caribbean Islands and probably South America and Central America. Red Bay and other settlements are established on Andros Island between 1819 and 1821.
1821: Florida annexed by the United States.
1835-1842: 2nd Seminole War is fought.
1855-1858: 3rd Seminole War is fought.
1877-1886: First of the Cheyenne Chippewas who had been forced to leave Montana, were relocated to Oklahoma. A series of violent military battles were fought. Many of the Cheyenne Chippewas were relocated to Florida to keep them at peace. Most likely it took more than one forced relocation to Florida, to end the defiant Cheyenne Chippewas of Oklahoma, will to fight. Southern Florida had few whites in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Records[edit | edit source]
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
- Allotment records
- Annuity rolls
- Census records
- Health records
- School census and records
- Vital records
Census Records[edit | edit source]
Land Records[edit | edit source]
All land is tribally-owned.
Websites[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
- Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Wick R. Miller. Miller, Wick R. 1931. The Wick Miller Papers (1931-1994) contain correspondence, research files, field notes, word lists, notebooks, articles and reprints, pamphlets, maps, class syllabi, tests and assignments, student papers, and manuscripts. Wick Miller (1932-1994) was an anthropological linguist and pioneer in language acquisition studies.WorldCat 447297763 Wick R. Miller Papers
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
- Weaver, Thomas, and Emil W. Haury. Indians of Arizona: A Contemporary Perspective. Tucson, Ariz: University of Arizona Press, 1974. FHL 970.1 W379i WorldCat 834949
References[edit | edit source]
- Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2