Indigenous Peoples of the United States Genealogy

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Native American Topics
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Buffalo Hunt under the Wolf-Skin Mask
Beginning Research
Tribes
Record Types
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Other Topics
Cheyennes: Henry Roman Nose, Yellow Bear, and Lame Man.









Getting Started[edit | edit source]

Indigenous Peoples of the United States Genealogy is a guide to beginning Native American research, available records types, BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) agencies and reservations, census, church, military records, schools, annuity, allotment, treaties, removal records, archives and libraries, cultural groups, and forts.
Several approaches could be taken to locate information about a potential Native American ancestor.

If the name of the tribe with which the ancestor was associated is known, a researcher should study the history and culture of that tribe and locate the records created by various records jurisdictions for that tribe.

  • If the tribe is not known, a more logical approach would be to determine the tribes associated with the locality or localities where the ancestor resided. In this case, sometimes only the state is known. Occasionally a county of residence is known. In either case, the records of that locality should be searched until the association of the ancestor is established or at least strongly suspected.
  • If a residence close to a reservation or a Bureau of Indian Affairs agency is known, the history of the reservation or agency and the location of records they generated could be studied.

Many records were created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and their various offices. Many of those records have been preserved by the National Archives of the United States and its regional archives. Some of those records have been microfilmed and are available at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. Some of the records are also being digitized and indexed by internet websites and by commercial companies.

There are also other jurisdictions that recorded information about the American Indians, including churches, schools, hospitals, and others. Each of these jurisdictions may have records for individuals and should be studied.

By Locality[edit | edit source]

If you know where your ancestor lived at the time of the alleged Native American connection, go to the page for the indigenous peoples of that state or province by clicking on the link below.

States[edit | edit source]

By Tribe[edit | edit source]

There are over 573 federally recognized tribal entities in the United States and are usually called tribes or nations. There are also many more indigenous groups, sometimes called bands, some of which are included in the federally recognized tribal entities. In addition to those recognized by the federal government, there are tribes that are state-recognized, tribes that are seeking official recognition, and tribes that have existed historically that are no longer recognized as a distinct tribe.

There are approximately 630 "First Nations" recognized by the Canadian government, some of which reside on the US/Canadian border and are closely related to some of the tribes in the United States.

The page for each state of the United States lists the known tribes who reside in or had historical connection to that state. A separate page exists for many of the tribes listed on the state pages. If you know the name of the tribe with which your family is connected, you may simply search for the name of the tribe.

The Tribal Office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the Native American researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.

Some of the major tribes of the United States are listed here.

By BIA Office[edit | edit source]

Agencies and Sub Agencies Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs are the field offices of that federal bureau. They are normally the office that recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians. They are listed under the pages for the Indigenous Peoples of [state], the tribes they served, the name of the agency, and the reservation for which they were the field office. They are also cross-linked among these pages.

Sub-Agencies normally served smaller jurisdictions or tribes than the agencies and were subordinate to an agency.

U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs BIA Regional, Agency, and Field Offices Map

BIA Regional Offices page links to twelve regions: Alaska, Eastern, Eastern Oklahoma, Great Plains, Midwest, Navajo, Northwest, Pacific, Rocky Mountain, Southern Plains, Southwest, and Western; site map, with listing of Tribes served, and agencies

Area Offices. Area Offices of the BIA are administrative offices. They kept many records, but most of the files regarding individuals are kept at the agency level or in the Tribal Offices of each tribe.

Superintendencies. Historically, the Bureau of Indian Affairs used an administrative office called a superintendency to oversee the local agencies and sub-agencies. Most of them were abolished in the 1870s and, for a time, the agencies reported directly to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC. The records of the superintendencies usually consist primarily of correspondence and reports of the BIA Field Offices.

By Reservation[edit | edit source]

There are or have been hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many of them are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by a state office of Indian Affairs. Federal reservations usually have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs responsible for the administration of that reservation.

Research Facilities[edit | edit source]

There are many research facilities that have significant collections of Native American records. See also American Indian Archives and Libraries. A few of the larger ones are listed below. Some university libraries and historical societies have significant and unique collections for their areas of interest.

Archives

Records of the indigenous population can be found in several archives, including the National Archives and its regional archives, state archives, and other archival institutions.

Historical Societies

  • Oklahoma Historical Society. One of the largest collections of Native American history and records is housed in the American Indian Archives of the Oklahoma Historical Society in Oklahoma City.
  • State Historical Society of Wisconsin houses one of the most comprehensive collections of Native American periodicals in the United States. The collection includes community newspapers in native languages, mission and church newspapers, and periodicals.

Libraries

Many libraries have special collections of materials regarding the local indigenous groups. Some of the larger libraries have very large collections of such material.

Record Keepers[edit | edit source]

Federal. Several federal departments have historically kept Native American records:

  • Department of War
  • Department of Interior
  • Department of State (Territorial)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs since 1947, and its forerunner, the Office of Indian Affairs, from 1824 to 1947, have been the primary offices of the federal government responsible for the administration of Indian Affairs in the United States. They also generated the largest amount of records regarding individual Native Americans.

States. Nearly every state in the United States has an Office of Indian Affairs, although their title may vary from one state to another. These offices coordinate affairs between their state's government and the tribal governments. They also have particular responsibility for any tribes recognized by the state that are not federally recognized. For a list of contact information for each state, click here.

Churches. Several denominations sent missionaries among the Native Americans, often establishing missions, some of which evolved into long-standing congregations on or near reservations. Read more...

Schools. Many schools were established for the education of indigenous children, including boarding school, day schools, mission schools, and many others. Read more...

Health Facilities. The Bureau of Indian Affairs established health facilities for Native Americans at many locations throughout the United States. Read more...

See Also[edit | edit source]

Related Wiki pages are found at:

Native American

Indians of the United States

Five Civilized Tribes

Did You Know?[edit | edit source]

  • Indigenous people served in every U.S. Military conflict from the Revolutionary War to the present. Many served as scouts for the United States Army during many of their skirmishes with other indigenous peoples.
  • In 1902 the Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) sent a circular letter to all field agents giving them instructions to systematize the surnames of all people under their charge.
  • The Indian Reorganization Act (also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act) of 1934 established the right for most indigenous tribes of the United States to govern their own affairs through the establishment of their own tribal governments, tribal councils, and tribal offices.

Websites[edit | edit source]

  • Join the Facebook American Indian (Southeastern US) Genealogy Research Community!

References[edit | edit source]

  1. OU Search: Native American manuscripts and published records in University of Oklahoma (accessed 11 May 2016).
  2. History of the Apaches in University of Arizona Special Collections (accessed 11 May 2016)
  3. Search: American Indian Collection in Brigham Young University (accessed 11 May 2016)