Basic Facts[edit | edit source]
Location: New England; Southeastern Quebec
Eastern Abenaki: Penobscot and Passamaquoddy (two largest tribes), Houlton, Maliseet, Androscoggin, Kennebec, Ossipee, and Pigwacket.
Western Abenaki: Vermont Abenaki
Well known Leaders: Massasoit, son of Massasoit Metacom (King Phillip), Samoset,
Tribal Headquarters[edit | edit source]
Abenaki Tribal Council
P.O. Box 276
Missiquoi, Vermont 05488
History[edit | edit source]
Brief Timeline[edit | edit source]
War, famine and disease depopulation the tribes in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
1524: French expediton led by Giovanni da Verranzano was early recorded contact with non Indians
1600's: Fur trading began with the French and English.
1600'S: Their villages raided by the Iroquois.
1604: Samuel de Champlain a fur trader encountered many of the Abenaki tribes.
1675-1676: King Phillip's War
1689-1697: Joined the French against the English
Inter tribal conflict with the Micmac
Jesuit missionaries were the first, with the Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries following
1702-1713: Queen Anne's War
1722- 1727: Dummer's War / Lovewell's War; initially an effort to defend their rights to their land supported and the French Jesuits.
1744-1748: King George's War -- the Abenaki, Missisquoi, St. Frances and Sokoki joined the French in fighting the English.
1756-1763 Seven Years' War or French and Indian War
1776-----: During the Revolutionary War the St. Francis Abenaki served with the British; the Panobscot, Passamaquoddy, Maliseet and Micmac supported the colonists
Migration into Canada as Vermont denied land to the Abenaki
1805: The British gave land to the Abenaki (Canada)
1980: President Carter signed a bill granting Passamaquoddy and Penobscot millions in restitution for the loss of their homelands.
1982: Vermont Abenaki applied for federal recognition
Reservations[edit | edit source]
Old Town, Maine
Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Band[edit | edit source]
Abenaki Indian Legends, Grammar and Place Names. by Henry Lorne Masta, Victoriaville, P.Q, La Voix des Bois-France 1932. FHL Book: 970.2 Ab7im
Abenaki Indians: Their Treaties of 1713 and 1717, and a Vocabularty, with a Historical Introduction. by Frederic Kindder, FHL Film 1688409
Records[edit | edit source]
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
- Allotment records
- Annuity rolls
- Census records
- Health records
- School census and records
- [[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital recor
Census Records[edit | edit source]
Census Records census of various Abenaki groups, early 1800-1852.
Important Websites[edit | edit source]
- Constitution of the Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People of the Greater Abenaki Nation of the Wabanaki Confederation of N'dakinna approved 2005
- Abenaki Wikipediadescribes subdivisions, history, culture, maps, notable people, and external links.
- Penobscot Indian Nation has information and a directory for this nation's government, as well as a page for Historical Background and a page for the Penobscot Nation Museum.